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Table 3 Comparisons of lipid profiles of the participants between and within the groups

From: Curcumin and zinc co-supplementation along with a loss-weight diet can improve lipid profiles in subjects with prediabetes: a multi-arm, parallel-group, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled phase 2 clinical trial

Variables Groups p-value Adjusted
p-value*
Placebo
(N = 20)
Curcumin
(N = 21)
Zinc
(N = 21)
Zinc and curcumin
(N = 20)
Triglyceride (mg/dl)
 Pre-intervention 132.55 ± 25.96 131.48 ± 26.16 125.76 ± 25.74 126.1 ± 27.64 0.776
 Post-intervention 123.1 ± 18.6 107.48 ± 11.9 114.52 ± 16.93 111.6 ± 18.01 0.026 0.286
 P-value 0.001  < 0.001 0.001  < 0.001
 Change ▓ − 9.45 ± 10.51 − 24.0 ± 18.97 b − 11.24 ± 13.821 − 14.50 ± 12.094 0.007 0.001
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)
 Pre-intervention 186.5 ± 24.91 188.95 ± 23.5 182.52 ± 26.11 181.35 ± 19.98 0.716
 Post-intervention 184.25 ± 24.4 175.71 ± 17.01 172.67 ± 21.34 170.95 ± 13.45 0.146 0.583
 P-value 0.103  < 0.001 0.001  < 0.001
 Change − 2.25 ± 5.87 − 13.24 ± 11.52 − 9.86 ± 10.94 − 10.40 ± 9.98 0.005 0.15
LDL (mg/dl)
 Pre-intervention 111.74 ± 22.29 114.63 ± 20.22 110.81 ± 28.22 110.87 ± 20.53 0.944
 Post-intervention 109.48 ± 22.77 97.74 ± 18.9 94.86 ± 23.78 92.93 ± 15.65 0.057 0.378
 P-value 0.155  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001
 Change▓ − 2.26 ± 6.83 − 16.89 ± 11.68b − 15.96 ± 14.82a − 17.93 ± 10.06a  < 0.001 0.035
HDL (mg/dl)
 Pre-intervention 48.25 ± 5.58 47 ± 6.39 47.14 ± 6.77 46 ± 6.37 0.734
 Post-intervention 50.15 ± 5.34 56.47 ± 6.14b 54.9 ± 6.8a 55.7 ± 6.3a 0.007 0.016
 P-value  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001
 Change▓ 1.90 ± 1.41 9.48 ± 4.14c 7.76 ± 6.40c 9.70 ± 3.23 c  < 0.001  < 0.001
Non-HDL (mg/dl)
 Pre-intervention 138.25 ± 26.47 141.95 ± 24.91 135.38 ± 26.47 135.35 ± 21.81 0.834
 Post-intervention 134.1 ± 26.47 119.24 ± 24.91 117.76 ± 31.79 115.25 ± 21.81 0.036 0.34
 P-value 0.009  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001
 Change▓ − 4.15 ± 6.42 − 22.71 ± 13.27c − 17.62 ± 15.14a − 20.10 ± 10.27a  < 0.001 0.003
HDL to LDL ratio
 Pre-intervention 0.45 ± 0.13 0.42 ± 0.11 0.47 ± 0.21 0.43 ± 0.11 0.712 0.192
 Post-intervention 0.48 ± 0.14 0.6 ± 0.14 0.63 ± 0.23 0.62 ± 0.15 0.025 0.132
 P-value  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001
 Change▓ − 0.03 ± 0.04 − 0.18 ± 0.1c − 0.16 ± 0.15b − 0.19 ± 0.08c  < 0.001 0.002
  1. Data were presented as mean ± standard deviation
  2. HDL high‐density lipoprotein-cholesterol, LDL low-density lipoprotein, Non-HDL non-high‐density lipoprotein
  3. ▓The changes (pre-post intervention) calculated based on the difference of variables from the baseline (pre- intervention) to the end (post intervention) of the study
  4. P < 0.05 was considered significant difference
  5. P-value was calculated for the comparison variables within group using paired t-test
  6. P-value was calculated for the comparison variables between four groups using one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) with post hoc (LSD) analysis
  7. *Adjusted P-value was calculated using ANCOVA; Adjusted for PA levels at the baseline, changes in BMI and weight
  8. Significant changes with placebo group indicated by aadjusted p < 0.05, badjusted p ≤ 0.01, cadjusted p ≤ 0.001