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Table 1 Characteristics of the included stuides

From: Long-term glycemic variability and risk of stroke in patients with diabetes: a meta-analysis

Study Country Design Participants Sample size Mean age
GV measurement and duration GV parameter analysis Follow-up duration
Outcome reported Variables adjusted Quality score
Lin (2014) China RC T2DM patients 28,354 60.2 47.2 FPG-CV with first year Q4:Q1 7.5 Ischemic stroke Age, sex, obesity, smoking, alcohol, duration of DM, type OADs, hypertension drug treatment and HbA1c 8
Lee (2017) China RC T2DM patients 8259 62 52 HbA1c-SD for at least 3 measurements T3:T1 6.3 Ischemic stroke Age, sex, hypertension, retinopathy and neuropathy, mean HbA1C, TG, HDL-c, eGFR, and medications use, including ACEI/ARB, aspirin, statin and/or fibrate, and insulin 8
Lee (2020) Korea RC DM patients (T2DM 97.5%) 624,237 56.8 66.1 FPG-CV and FPG-SD for at least 3 measurements Q4:Q1 8 Total stroke Age, sex, BMI, alcohol drinking, smoking, regular exercise, presence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, CKD, lower income, duration of DM, OAD use, insulin use, and mean HbA1c 8
Li (2020) Scotland RC T2DM patients 21,352 63.3 54.6 HbA1c-CV and HbA1c-SD for at least 5 measurements Q5:Q1 6.8 Ischemic stroke Age, sex, calendar year, Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation quintiles, ever smoking, hypertension, BMI, HbA1c, HDL-c, eGFR, antiplatelet therapy at baseline, and CCI 8
Scott (2020) Australia Post-hoc T2DM patients 9790 62.3 62.5 FPG-CV and FPG-SD, HbA1c-CV and HbA1c-SD for 3 measurements Q4:Q1 5 Total stroke Age, sex, HbA1c, study allocation, SBP, DM duration, prior CVD, prior microvascular complications and baseline use of OAD, insulin and antihypertensive drugs 7
Shen (2021) USA RC T2DM patients 29,260 67.2 45.7 FPG-CV and FPG-SD for at least 4 measurements within first 2 years Q4:Q1 4.2 Total stroke Age, race, sex, smoking, BMI, SBP, non-HDL/HDL ratio, eGFR, HbA1c, insurance type, hypoglycemia events, use of OAD, anti-hypertensive medications, lipid-lowering medications, and antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications 7
Sato (2021) Japan Post-hoc T2DM patients 4532 63 47.5 HbA1c-CV for at least 3 measurements Q5:Q1 3.2 Total stroke Age, sex, BMI, smoking, duration of DM, study allocation, hypertension, eGFR and HbA1c 7
  1. GV glycemic variability, RC retrospective cohort, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, FPG fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, SD standard deviation, CV coefficient of variation, Q4: Q1 comparison between the fourth and the first quartiles, T3: T1 comparison between the third and the first tertiles, Q5: Q1 comparison between the fifth and the first quintiles, DM diabetes mellitus, OAD oral antidiabetic drug, DM diabetes mellitus, BMI body mass index, TG triglyceride, HDL-c high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-c low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, CKD chronic kidney disease, eGFR estimated glomerular filtrating rate, SBP systolic blood pressure, CKD chronic kidney disease, CVD cardiovascular disease, ACEI angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker, CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index