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Table 1 Characteristics of the study

From: Associations between serum total bilirubin, obesity and type 2 diabetes

Variable Low (< 8.6 µmol/L)
(n = 13,481)
Moderate
(8.6–12.0 µmol/L)
(n = 12,714)
High
(≥ 12 µmol/L)
(n = 12,446)
P value
Age (years) 46.1 (45.5–46.6) 46.9 (46.5–47.4) 46.4 (45.9–46.9) 0.373
Sex (Females, %) 68.0 (66.9–69.1) 54.4 (53.3–55.5) 34.6 (33.6–35.6)  < 0.001
Race (%)
 Non-Hispanic white 65.1 (62.4–67.7) 70.4 (68.1–72.6) 74.6 (72.6–76.5)  < 0.001
 Non-Hispanic black 12.8 (11.2–14.6) 10.4 (9.3–11.7) 7.7 (6.8–8.6)  
 Mexican–American 8.5 (7.3–9.9) 7.8 (6.7–9.0) 6.8 (5.8–7.9)  
 Other 13.6 (12.3–15.0) 11.4 (10.3–12.5) 10.9 (9.8–12.2)  
Body mass index (kg/m2) 29.8 (29.6–30.0) 28.5 (28.3–28.7) 27.5 (27.3–27.7)  < 0.001
Smoking (%)
 Never 53.2 (51.9–54.6) 53.2 (51.7–54.7) 57.2 (55.8–58.6)  < 0.001
 Former 20.3 (19.3–21.4) 22.5 (21.5–23.6) 24.0 (22.9–25.1)  
 Current 26.5 (25.0–28.0) 24.2 (22.9–25.5) 18.8 (17.7–20.0)  
Significant alcohol use (%) 27.8 (26.7–28.9) 33.0 (31.7–34.2) 32.1 (30.8–33.4)  < 0.001
Marital status (%) 53.2 (51.6–54.7) 57.1 (55.6–58.6) 61.7 (60.2–63.2)  < 0.001
Education attainment
 < 9 years 5.5 (5.0–6.2) 5.6 (5.1–6.1) 4.8 (4.3–5.3)  < 0.001
 9–11 years 11.1 (10.4–11.9) 11.6 (10.7–12.5) 8.9 (8.1–9.7)  
 12 years 25.1 (23.9–26.3) 23.9 (22.9–25.0) 21.8 (20.5–23.1)  
 > 12 years 58.2 (56.5–59.9) 58.9 (57.3–60.5) 64.6 (62.8–66.3)  
Vigorous/Moderate RPA (%) 53.9 (52.3–55.4) 59.8 (58.2–61.4) 65.6 (63.9–67.3)  < 0.001
Poverty income ratio 2.8 (2.8–2.9) 3.0 (3.0–3.1) 3.3 (3.2–3.3)  < 0.001
TC (mmol/L) 5.0 (5.0–5.0) 5.1 (5.1–5.1) 5.1 (5.1–5.1)  < 0.001
  1. PRA recreational physical activity, TC total cholesterol
  2. The STB was classified as the low, moderate, and high groups according to tertiles