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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes of MINOCA patients based on glucometabolic status

From: Impact of prediabetes on long-term cardiovascular outcomes in patients with myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries

  Normoglycemia
(n = 572)
Prediabetes
(n = 371)
Diabetes
(n = 236)
p value
Male, n(%) 437 (76.3%) 269 (72.5%) 161 (68.2%)  < 0.001
Age, yrs 53.0 ± 12.2 57.9 ± 9.8 58.2 ± 11.4  < 0.001
BMI, kg/m2 25.0 ± 3.6 25.5 ± 3.6 26.4 ± 4.2 0.007
STEMI, n(%) 235 (41.0%) 149 (40.1%) 91 (38.5%) 0.800
Emergent CAG, n(%) 79 (13.8%) 44 (11.8%) 36 (15.2%) 0.503
Vital signs at admission
 Systolic BP, mmHg 124.3 ± 17.5 124.4 ± 17.2 129.1 ± 17.7 0.001
 Diastolic BP, mmHg 75.4 ± 11.0 76.4 ± 11.8 78.1 ± 12.5 0.022
 Heart rate, bpm 69.1 ± 10.2 69.2 ± 11.7 70.5 ± 11.2 0.209
Medical history, n(%)
 Hypertension 272 (47.5%) 202 (54.4%) 156 (66.1%)  < 0.001
 Dyslipidemia 316 (55.2%) 217 (58.4%) 153 (64.8%) 0.001
 Previous MI 22 (3.8%) 21 (5.6%) 15 (6.3%) 0.252
Killip class ≥ 2, n(%) 38 (6.6%) 30 (8.0%) 21 (8.8%) 0.189
LVEF, % 61.1 ± 7.0 60.3 ± 7.6 59.3 ± 8.1 0.007
Laboratory data
 FBG, mmol/L 4.98 ± 0.53 5.40 ± 0.68 7.93 ± 2.59  < 0.001
 HbA1c, % 5.40 ± 0.24 6.00 ± 0.19 7.38 ± 1.38  < 0.001
 TG, mmol/L 1.39 (1.03, 1.95) 1.41 (1.05, 1.90) 1.70 (1.16, 2.33) 0.001
 TC, mmol/L 3.83 ± 0.90 3.89 ± 0.84 4.12 ± 1.02 0.018
 LDL-C, mmol/L 2.25 ± 0.63 2.28 ± 0.68 2.46 ± 0.85 0.033
 HDL-C, mmol/L 1.11 ± 0.34 1.08 ± 0.29 1.04 ± 0.27 0.042
 Creatinine, μmol/L 80.2 ± 17.3 79.3 ± 14.1 81.0 ± 23.5 0.484
 NT-proBNP, pg/mL 312 (108, 652) 353 (117, 694) 453 (121, 786) 0.012
 TnI, ng/mL 1.42 (0.32, 4.13) 1.47 (0.43, 3.92) 1.55 (0.54, 4.62) 0.113
 hs-CRP, mg/L 2.12 (0.95, 5.50) 2.21 (1.07, 5.44) 2.22 (1.06, 7.12) 0.217
In-hospital medication
 DAPT 534 (92.8%) 342 (90.8%) 215 (93.8%) 0.515
 Statin 544 (95.6%) 356 (94.6%) 230 (97.2%) 0.311
 ACEI or ARB 347 (62.7%) 242 (63.4%) 170 (66.9%) 0.008
 Beta-blocker 400 (71.1%) 276 (73.8%) 184 (73.7%) 0.049
CV outcomes
 MACE 62 (10.8%) 60 (16.1%) 46 (19.4%) 0.003
 Death, nonfatal MI, stroke or revascularization 34 (5.9%) 37 (9.9%) 31 (13.1%) 0.005
 All-cause death 6 (1.0%) 7 (1.8%) 5 (2.1%) 0.423
 Nonfatal MI 16 (2.7%) 15 (4.0%) 10 (4.2%) 0.455
 Revascularization 14 (2.4%) 16 (4.3%) 16 (6.7%) 0.014
 Nonfatal stroke 3 (0.5%) 5 (1.3%) 4 (1.6%) 0.240
 Hospitalization for UA 23 (4.0%) 26 (7.0%) 22 (9.3%) 0.010
 Hospitalization for HF 19 (3.3%) 17 (4.5%) 12 (5.0%) 0.347
  1. BMI body mass index, STEMI ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, CAG coronary artery angiology, BP blood pressure, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, FBG fasting blood glucose, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, TG triglyceride, TC total cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, NT-proBNP N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, TnI troponin I, hs-CRP high-sensitive C-reactive protein, DAPT dual anti-platelet therapy, ACEI angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor antagonist, MACE major adverse cardiovascular events, MI myocardial infarction, UA unstable angina, HF heart failure