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Table 2 Summary of the body weight reduction across the PIONEER trials considering the trial product without rescue medication (trial product estimand)

From: Advances in GLP-1 treatment: focus on oral semaglutide

Trial Treatment Body weight (kg)
From baseline to week 26 From baseline to week 52
Mean change (kg) EDT (95% CI) kg p Mean change (kg) EDT (95% CI) kg p
PIONEER 1 Sema 3 mg − 1.7 − 0.2 (− 1.0 to 0.6) 0.71
Sema 7 mg − 2.5 − 1.0 (− 1.8 to − 0.2) 0.01
Sema 14 mg − 4.1 − 2.6 (− 3.4 to − 1.8) < 0.001
Pbo − 1.5
PIONEER 2 Sema 14 mg − 4.2 − 0.4 (− 1.0 to 1.0) 0.1358 − 4.7 − 0.9 (− 1.6 to − 0.2) 0.0114
Empa 25 mg − 3.8 − 3.8
PIONEER 3 Sema 3 mg − 1.3 − 0.5 (− 1.0 to − 0.1) 0.03 − 1.7 − 0.7 (− 1.3 to − 0.1) 0.02
Sema 7 mg − 2.4 − 1.5 (− 2.0 to − 1.1) < 0.001 − 2.5 − 1.5 (− 2.1 to − 0.9) < 0.001
Sema 14 mg − 3.6 − 2.6 (− 3.1 to − 2.1) < 0.001 − 4.2 − 2.9 (− 3.5 to − 2.3) < 0.001
Sita 100 mg − 0.7 − 0.9
PIONEER 4 Sema 14 mg − 4.7 − 1.5 (− 2.2 to − 0.9)a < 0.0001a − 5.0 − 1.8 (− 2.6 to − 1.0)a < 0.0001a
− 4.0 (− 4.8 to − 3.2)b < 0.0001b − 3.8 (− 4.8 to − 2.7)b < 0.0001b
Lira 1.8 mg − 3.2 − 3.1
Pbo − 0.7 − 1.2
PIONEER 5 Sema 14 mg − 3.7 − 2.7 (− 3.5 to − 1.9) < 0.0001
Pbo − 1.1
PIONEER 7 Sema flex − 2.9 (SE 0.3) − 2.2 (− 2.9 to − 1.5) < 0.0001
Sita 100 mg − 0.8 (SE 0.3)
PIONEER 8 Sema 3 mg − 1.3 − 0.9 (− 1.6 to − 0.2) 0.0111 − 1.0 − 1.6 (− 2.6 to − 0.7) 0.0009
Sema 7 mg − 3.0 − 2.5 (− 3.2 to − 1.8) < 0.0001 − 2.9 − 3.5 (− 4.5 to − 2.6) < 0.0001
Sema 14 mg − 4.1 − 3.7 (− 4.4 to − 3.0) < 0.0001 − 4.3 − 4.9 (− 5.9 to − 3.9) < 0.0001
Pbo − 0.4 0.6
  1. CI confidence interval; Dula dulaglutide; EDT estimated treatment differences; Empa empagliflozin; Flex flexible dose adjustment; Lira liraglutide; Pbo placebo; SE standard error; Sema oral semaglutide; Sita sitagliptin
  2. aVersus liraglutide
  3. bVersus placebo