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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the study subjects

From: A potent weighted risk model for evaluating the occurrence and severity of diabetic foot ulcers

Variables Set1 Statistics P-value Set2 Statistics P-value
Cases (N = 494) Controls (N = 507) Cases (N = 231) Controls (N = 256)
Sex (%)
 Male 358 (72) 358 (71)    179 (77) 170 (66)   
 Female 136 (28) 149 (29) χ2 = 0.3 0.56 52 (23) 86 (34) χ2 = 6.8 0.009
Age, years 61.7 ± 12.0 55.8 ± 11.2 t = 8.0 3.42 × 10–15 64.0 ± 12.3 59.7 ± 12.1 t = 3.8 1.00 × 10–4
BMI, kg/m2 23.4 ± 3.4 24.7 ± 3.4 t = − 5.9 6.34 × 10–9 23.4 ± 3.7 24.6 ± 3.2 t = − 4.0 8.68 × 10–5
Diabetes duration, years 12.5 ± 7.9 9.2 ± 7.2 t = 7.0 5.60 × 10–12 11.4 ± 8.0 7.7 ± 6.9 t = 5.5 8.15 × 10–8
Coronary heart disease (%)
 Yes 99 (20) 68 (13)    73 (32) 53 (21)   
 No 395 (80) 439 (87) χ2 = 7.4 0.006 158 (68) 203 (79) χ2 = 7.0 0.008
Stroke (%)
 Yes 95 (19) 19 (4)    46 (20) 43 (17)   
 No 399 (81) 488 (96) χ2 = 57.9 2.74 × 10–14 185 (80) 213 (83) χ2 = 0.6 0.441
Hypertension (%)
 Yes 272 (55) 213 (42)    118 (51) 122 (48)   
 No 222 (45) 294 (58) χ2 = 16.5 4.77 × 10–5 113 (49) 134 (52) χ2 = 0.4 0.506
Diabetic retinopathy (%)
 Yes 282 (57) 197 (39)    58 (25) 53 (21)   
 No 212 (43) 310 (61) χ2 = 32.6 1.14 × 10–8 173 (75) 203 (79) χ2 = 1.1 0.294
Family history of diabetes (%)
 Yes 175 (35) 228 (45)    43 (19) 49 (19)   
 No 319 (65) 279 (55) χ2 = 9.1 0.003 188 (81) 207 (81) χ2 = 0.001 0.974
Smoking status (%)
 Yes 225 (46) 269 (53)    111 (48) 98 (38)   
 No 189 (54) 318 (47) χ2 = 6.7 0.01 120 (52) 158 (62) χ2 = 4.3 0.037
Hemoglobin, g/L 117.3 ± 22.5 136.8 ± 18.5 t = − 15.0 < 2.2 × 10–16 124.7 ± 20.5 138.2 ± 18.3 t = − 7.6 1.27 × 10–13
Neutrophil percentage, % 72.7 ± 11.7 60.6 ± 9.2 t = 18.3 < 2.2 × 10–16 69.1 ± 10.9 60.2 ± 10.4 t = 9.3 < 2.2 × 10–16
Serum albumin, g/L 33.6 ± 6.2 40.1 ± 4.3 t = − 19.3 < 2.2 × 10–16 35.3 ± 5.5 41.3 ± 8.1 t = − 9.7 < 2.2 × 10–16
Serum uric acid, μmol/L 306.1 ± 108.8 316.4 ± 81.1 t = − 1.7 < 2.2 × 10–16 316.0 ± 102.4 320.2 ± 94.2 t = − 0.5 0.637
Plasma fibrinogen, g/L 5.3 ± 1.7 3.0 ± 0.8 t = 27.2 < 2.2 × 10–16 4.4 ± 1.5 3.2 ± 0.9 t = 10.9 < 2.2 × 10–16
eGFR, mL/min/1.73m2 91.9 ± 40.2 106.2 ± 27.9 t = − 6.5 1.06 × 10–10 91.2 ± 35.1 112.1 ± 38.9 t = − 6.2 9.71 × 10–10
HbA1c, % 9.1 ± 2.3 8.4 ± 2.0 t = 5.3 1.12 × 10–7 9.6 ± 2.6 8.9 ± 2.3 t = 3.2 1.56 × 10–3
Clinical severity (%)
 Severe 253 (51)    88 (38)   
 Mild 241 (49) 143 (62)
  1. Continuous variables were presented as mean ± SD
  2. HbA1c Hemoglobin A1c