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Table 2 Incidence rate and adjusted odd ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the risk of insulin-requiring gestational diabetes by fatty liver index and each component of fatty liver index

From: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the risk of insulin-requiring gestational diabetes

  Events (n) Incidence rate* Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Fatty liver index
 < 30 1570 5.3 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
 30–59 267 36.8 5.70 (4.98,6.53) 3.53 (3.06,4.07) 3.50 (2.99,4.10)
 ≥ 60 147 62.4 9.96 (8.35,11.90) 4.83 (3.99,5.84) 4.19 (3.37,5.23)
Body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2
 No 1413 4.9 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
 Yes 571 25.9 4.52 (4.09,5.00) 3.14 (2.83,3.49) 3.01 (2.67,3.39)
Waist circumference ≥ 85 cm
 No 1676 5.6 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
 Yes 308 29.6 4.45 (3.92,5.04) 2.89 (2.54,3.29) 2.85 (2.46,3.30)
Triglyceride ≥ 150 mg/dl or lipid lowering treatment
 No 1584 5.4 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
 Yes 400 27.6 4.30 (3.84,4.81) 2.82 (2.50,3.18) 2.79 (2.44,3.20)
Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) highest quartile, ≥ 18 IU/L
 No 1007 4.3 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
 Yes 977 12.9 2.78 (2.54,3.04) 2.19 (2.00,2.40) 2.22 (2.00,2.47)
  1. *Per 1000 person-years
  2. Model 1: Adjusted for age
  3. Model 2: Adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, income status, fasting blood glucose, and dyslipidemia
  4. Model 3: Adjusted for model 2 + family history of diabetes