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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the study subjects before pregnancy according to fatty liver index score category

From: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the risk of insulin-requiring gestational diabetes

  Fatty liver index score
   < 30 30–59  ≥ 60
N 298,475 7265 2355
Age (years) 29.6 ± 3.6 31.1 ± 4.4 31.3 ± 4.2
 ≥ 35 years 25,232 (8.5) 1370 (18.9) 467 (19.8)
Current smoker 9867 (3.3) 688 (9.5) 319 (13.6)
Mild alcohol drinker 144,475 (48.4) 3986 (54.9) 1312 (55.7)
Regular Exercise 31,079 (10.41) 932 (12.83) 303 (12.87)
Income (lower 25%) 58,363 (19.55) 2131 (29.33) 781 (33.16)
Family history of DM 28,016 (13.0) 1060 (20.3) 345 (19.9)
BMI (kg/m2) 20.5 ± 2.3 27.5 ± 2.8 31.5 ± 3.6
 < 18.5 52,986 (17.8) 3 (0.04) 1 (0.04)
 18.5–22.9 204,030 (68.4) 378 (5.2) 21 (0. 9)
 23–24.9 27,633 (9.3) 963 (13.3) 39 (1.7)
 25–29.9 13,498 (4.5) 4528 (62.3) 718 (30.5)
 ≥ 30 328 (0.1) 1393 (19.2) 1576 (66.9)
Waist circumferences (cm) 68.7 ± 6.2 84.9 ± 6.5 93.8 ± 8.0
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 66.9 (66.8–67.0) 137.8 (136.4–139.3) 172.6 (169.3–176.0)
GGT (IU/L) 15.1 (15.0–15.1) 28.7 (28.4–29.1) 40.3 (39.4–41.6)
FBG (mg/dL) 87.1 ± 9.0 92.3 ± 10.5 94.7 ± 11.3
TC (mg/dL) 176.32 ± 28.33 197.88 ± 33.73 205.89 ± 35.29
AST (IU/L) 14.0 (14.0–14.1) 23.3 (23.0–23.6) 32.4 (31.6–33.2)
ALT (IU/L) 19.2 (19.2–19.3) 22.6 (22.4–22.7) 27.1 (26.6–27.5)
Systolic BP (mmHg) 109.64 ± 10.55 118.68 ± 11.89 124.09 ± 12.91
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 68.97 ± 7.94 74.91 ± 8.77 78.7 ± 9.5
Hypertension (yes) 3102 (1.0) 524 (7.2) 349 (14.8)
Metabolic syndrome (yes) 1739 (0.6) 1691 (23.3) 1374 (58.3)
  1. Data are expressed as the mean ± SD, median (25–75%), or n (%). P-values for the trend were < 0.0001 for all variables because of the large size of the study population
  2. AST: aspartate transaminase; ALT: alanine transaminase; BMI: body mass index; BP: blood pressure; DM: diabetes mellitus; FBG: fasting blood glucose; GGT: gamma-glutamyl transferase; TC: total cholesterol