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Table 1 Characteristics of the study participants

From: Human Leukocyte Antigens class II (HLA II) gene profile from an admixed population of patients with type 1 diabetes with severe diabetic retinopathy: a nested case-control study in Brazil

Variable Patients with severe DR, N  =  117 Patients without DR, N  =  117 p value
Sociodemographic
 Gender, N (%)    0.011
  Male 57 (48.72) 38 (32.48)  
  Female 60 (51.28) 79 (67.52)  
 Age, y mean (SD) 38.8 (11.68) 34.56 (12.32) 0.007
 Economic status, N (%)    0.237
  High 4 (3.42) 7 (5.98)  
  Medium 52 (44.44) 49 (41.88)  
  Low 52 (44.44) 58 (49.57)  
  Very low 9 (7.69) 3 (2.56)  
 Years of schooling, y mean (SD) 11.98 (3.99) 12.50 (3.68) 0.300
Diabetes-related variables
 HbA1c (%), mean (SD) 8.89 (1.87) 8.40 (1.74) 0.043
 HbA1c mmol/mol, mean (SD) 73.64 (20.41) 68.38 (19.01) 0.043
 Duration of diabetes, y mean (SD) 23.42 (9.28) 22.18 (8.32) 0.283
 GFR 66.62 (24.35) 83.04 (25.60) < 0.001
 Arterial hypertension, y, N (%) 50 (42.68) 21 (17.95) < 0.001
Self-reported ethnicity, N (%)    0.320
 Caucasian 62 (52.99) 65 (55.55)
 Black 15 (12.82) 9 (7.69)
 Mullatos 36 (30.77) 41 (35.04)
 Native Americans 4 (3.42) 1 (0.85)
 Asian 0 1 (0.85)
  1. Bold represents statistical significance (p < 0.05)
  2. Data are present as number (percentage), mean  ±  SD (standard deviation), or median (IQR or range)
  3. DR diabetic retinopathy; y years