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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of the participants, stratified by outcome occurrence (Sudden cardiac death: SCD) during follow-up: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, Iran, 1999–2018

From: Anthropometric indices and the risk of incident sudden cardiac death among adults with and without diabetes: over 15 years of follow-up in The Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

  No Diabetes With Diabetes
No-SCD SCD P-value* No-SCD SCD P-value*
Number of participants (Men) 8945 (3930) 144 (110)   1099 (456) 86 (47)  
Continuous variables, Mean (SD)
 Age (year) 40.7 (13.7) 58.5 (14.0)  < 0.001 55.0 (11.5) 61.8 (8.7)  < 0.001
 BMI (kg/m2) 26.6 (4.7) 26.9 (4.7) 0.575 28.9 (4.6) 28.2 (5.1) 0.167
 WC (cm) 87.6 (12.0) 92.5 (11.5)  < 0.001 96.6 (10.8) 97.6 (11.6) 0.408
 WHR 0.87 (0.09) 0.94 (0.07)  < 0.001 0.94 (0.08) 0.98 (0.08)  < 0.001
 WHtR 0.54 (0.08) 0.57 (0.08)  < 0.001 0.61 (0.08) 0.61 (0.07) 0.733
 HC (cm) 100.7 (9.4) 98.3 (9.4) 0.003 102.8 (9.8) 99.5 (9.6) 0.002
 SBP (mmHg) 117.0 (17.4) 130.6 (25.1)  < 0.001 133.7 (22.5) 143.3 (25.9)  < 0.001
 DBP (mmHg) 76.6 (10.7) 80.7 (14.2) 0.001 82.2 (11.5) 83.9 (13.4) 0.255
 Pulse rate (beat/minute) 79.0 (11.4) 76.3 (13.4) 0.016 80.0 (12.0) 80.0 (12.6) 0.921
 FPG (mmol/L)⁑ 5.0 (0.5) 5.1 (0.5) 0.011 8.9 (3.3) 10.6 (3.8)  < 0.001
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L)⁑ 5.2 (1.2) 5.6 (1.2)  < 0.001 6.0 (1.3) 6.2 (1.2) 0.253
Categorical variables, number (%)
 Current smoker 1466 (16.4) 41 (28.5)  < 0.001 137 (12.5) 17 (19.8) 0.052
 Education level     < 0.001    0.001
  Illiterate/primary school 2624 (29.3) 86 (89.7)   666 (60.6)   
  Below diploma/diploma 4979 (55.7) 50 (34.7)   364 (33.1) 11 (12.8)  
  Above diploma 1342 (15) 8 (5.6)   69 (6.3) 7 (8.1)  
 Low physical activity, yes 6062 (67.8) 109 (75.7) 0.043 772 (70.2) 66 (76.7) 0.202
 Family history of premature CVD, yes 1359 (15.2) 30 (20.8) 0.062 222 (20.2) 8 (9.3) 0.014
 Prevalent CVD at baseline, yes 287 (3.2) 22 (15.3)  < 0.001 142 (12.9) 20 (23.3) 0.007
 Lipid-lowering medication, yes 194 (2.2) 7 (4.9) 0.029 125 (11.4) 8 (9.3) 0.558
 Antihypertensive medication, yes 470 (5.3) 34 (23.6)  < 0.001 247 (22.5) 26 (30.2)  < 0.001
  1. BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference, WHR waist-to-hip ratio, WHtR waist-to-height ratio, HC hip circumference, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, FPG fasting plasma glucose, CVD cardiovascular disease
  2. Values are shown as Mean (standard deviation: SD) and number (%) for continuous and categorical variables, respectively
  3. *The comparison P-value between groups was calculated using Student’s two-tailed t-test for continues variables and Chi-square test for categorical variables
  4. ⁑Conversion factors from mmol/L to mg/dL were 18.02 for FPG and 38.67 for total cholesterol