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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants

From: Metabolic control and hypoglycaemia in people with type 1 diabetes: insulin pump therapy vs. intensified insulin therapy in an unselected cohort in routine care

Parameters Participants p-value*
All (n = 237) CSII (n = 74) ICT (n = 163)
Women n (%) 116 (48.9) 47 (63.5) 69 (42.3) 0.003
Age (years) 54.6 ± 16.2 51.1 ± 15.8 56.2 ± 16.2 0.023
Duration of diabetes (years) 25.9 ± 13.8 28.7 ± 12.4 24.6 ± 14.3 0.033
Duration of pump therapy (years) 14.1 ± 7.2 n/a
Body weight (kg) 81.1 ± 17.4 79.4 ± 17.6 81.9 ± 17.4 0.319
BMI (kg/m2) 27.8 ± 5.2 27.6 ± 4.8 27.9 ± 5.4 0.690
HbA1c, DCCT adjusted
 % 7.2 ± 0.9 7.1 ± 0.8 7.2 ± 1.0 0.353
 mmol/mol 55.3 ± 10.3 54.4 ± 9.1 55.7 ± 10.9 0.353
Insulin dosage
 Total (IU/day) 52.6 ± 34.9 44.6 ± 22.5 56.2 ± 38.8 0.004
 Total (IU/kg) 0.6 ± 0.3 0.6 ± 0.2 0.7 ± 0.4 0.004
 Basal (IU/day) 23.5 ± 16.9 21.9 ± 13.1 24.1 ± 18.4 0.289
 Basal (IU/kg) 0.3 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.2 0.591
Number of insulin injections per day 5.1 ± 1.2 n/a
Type of short-acting insulin, n (%)
 Analogue 146 (61.6) 67 (90.5) 79 (48.5)  < 0.001
 Human 91 (38.4) 7 (9.5) 84 (51.5)
Type of basal insulin, n (%)
 Analogue 88 (55.7) n/a
 Human 70 (44.3) a
Number of people with, n (%)
 SMBG 148 (62.4) 37 (50.0) 111 (68.1) 0.009
 CGM/FGM 89 (37.6) 37 (50.0) 52 (31.9) 0.009
Impaired hypoglycaemia awareness, n (%) 57 (27.0) 21 (28.4) 36 (22.1) 0.623
Gold score (range 1–7) 2.5 ± 1.7 2.7 ± 1.9 2.5 ± 1.6 0.514
Frequency of non-severe hypoglycaemia per week
 In people with SMBG 1.4 ± 1.7 1.9 ± 1.7 1.2 ± 1.6 0.014
 In people with CGM/FGM 2.6 ± 2.2 3.3 ± 2.2 2.1 ± 2.0 0.006
Severe hypoglycaemia past 12 months
 Frequency 0.03 ± 0.18 0.03 ± 0.16 0.04 ± 0.19 0.701
 Number of events (people with an event) 8 (8) 2 (2) 6 (6) 1.000
Ketoacidosis past 12 months
 Frequency 0.01 ± 0.09 0 0.01 ± 0.11 0.341
 Number of events (people with an event) 2 (2) 0 2 (2) 1.000
Blood pressure
 Systolic (mmHg) 142.1 ± 17.0 138.0 ± 16.4 143.9 ± 17.1 0.014
 Diastolic (mmHg) 81.5 ± 11.9 81.2 ± 8.3 81.7 ± 13.2 0.711
 Pulse (bpm) 75.0 ± 13.1 75.4 ± 12.0 74.8 ± 13.6 0.741
Polyneuropathy, n (%) 76 (32.1) 14 (18.9) 62 (38.0) 0.004
Amputation minor/major, n (%) 2 (0.8) 1 (1.4) 1 (0.6) 0.428
Impaired kidney function (eGFR < 60 ml/min), n (%) 41 (17.4) 11 (14.9) 30 (18.4) 0.580
Albumin (mg/l) 52.5 ± 222.0 23.8 ± 45.6 65.7 ± 265.6 0.055
Nephropathy (albumin/g creatinine > 20 mg/g), n (%) 106 (44.7) 32 (43.2) 74 (45.4) 0.777
Dialysis, n (%) 3 (1.3) 1 (1.4) 2 (1.2) 1.000
Living alone, n (%) 44 (19.0) 11 (14.9) 33 (20.2) 0.479
Smoker, n (%) 41 (17.3) 12 (16.2) 29 (17.8) 0.854
Social status (range 3–21) 12.7 ± 4.0 13.5 ± 4.1 12.3 ± 3.9 0.067
DTSQs score (range 0–36) 26.2 ± 6.9 26.7 ± 7.3 26.0 ± 6.8 0.600
Wellbeing-5-Index (range 0–25) 17.0 ± 3.9 16.7 ± 4.0 17.2 ± 3.9 0.409
  1. BMI body mass index, CGM continuous glucose monitoring, CSII continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, DTSQs Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire status, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, FGM flash glucose monitoring, ICT intensified insulin therapy, IU international units, SMBG self-monitoring of blood glucose
  2. * Between CSII and ICT
  3. Of 158 individuals (n = 5, no basal insulin)