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Table 4 Clinical characteristics of patients that received pre-hospital metformin therapy and risk of death and orotracheal Intubation

From: Outcome and death risk of diabetes patients with Covid-19 receiving pre-hospital and in-hospital metformin therapies

  Non-met-group (n = 72) Number (%); Met-group (n = 116) Number (%); P*
Gender
 Female 26 (36.1%) 44 (62.9%) 0.8
 Male 46 (39.9%) 72 (61.0%)  
Age 68.62 ± 17.27 62.09 ± 15.13 0.006
Age class (years)
 29–59 21 (29.2%) 51 (44%)  
  ≥ 60 51 (70.8%) 65 (56%) 0.042
Clinical outcome
 Mortality 13 (18.1%) 6 (5.2%) 0.004
 Mortality by gender
 Female 6 (23.1%) 2 (4.5%)  
 Male 7 (15.2%) 4 (5.6%) 1
Comorbidities
 Obesity 15 (20.8%) 16 (13.8%) 0.206
 Cardiopathy 24 (33.3%) 17 (25.3%) 0.003
 Hypertension 55 (76.4%) 70 (60.3%) 0.023
 COPD/pneumonia 11 (15.3%) 6 (5.17%) 0.019
 Smoking/former smoking 6 (8.3%) 9 (7.8%) 0.888
 Neurological disease 9 (12.5%) 4 (3.4%) 0.017
 CKD 8 (11.1%) 3 (2.6%) 0.015
 Thyroid 10 (13.9%) 14 (12.1%) 0.716
 Dyslipidemia 31 (43.1%) 39 (33.6%) 0.193
 Neoplasia/immuno 3 (4.2%) 9 (7.8%) 0.327
 Asthma 2 (2.8%) 2 (1.7%) 0.638
 BMI 29.49 ± 4.96 29.203 ± 5.38 0.714
In-hospital Clinical characteristics
 NEWS 4.25 ± 3.43 2.45 ± 2.51 0.001
 Time of stay in ICU 4 (0–58) 1 (0–94) 0.157
 Time of stay in nursery 6 (0–58) 7 (9–28) 0.285
 Total hospitalization time 11 (2–72) 10 (2–100) 0.119
 Time of MV 0 (0–50) 0 (0–63) 0.168
 In-hospital metformin therapy 18 (25%) 97 (83.6%) 0.000
 In-hospital max dose of metformin 1158.33 ± 403.75 1265.98 ± 605.77 0.349
 In-hospital time of metformin therapy 6 (1–22) 6 (1–56) 0.554
 Pre-hospital metformin therapy 0 116
 Pre-hospital metformin daily dose 1144.71 ± 622.55
 In-hospital insulin therapy 25 (34.7%) 36 (31.0%) 0.600
 In-hospital time of insulin therapy 7 (1–55) 5 (1–98) 0.844
 Orotracheal intubation 22 (30.6%) 23 (20.5%) 0.123
 Prisma 10 (13.9%) 5 (4.5%) 0.023
 Prone 4 (5.6%) 3 (2.7%) 0.312
 Vasoactive drugs 21 (29.2%) 16 (14.3%) 0.014
 CLHO/HCQ 10 (13.9%) 5 (4.5%) 0.023
 Dexamethasone/prednisolone 67 (93.1%) 102 (87.9%) 0.257
  1. NS, not significant, Neoplasia/immune, Neoplasia/immunosuppression; BMI, body mass index; Time of MV, Time of mechanical ventilation; In-hospital max dose of metformin: In-hospital maximum dose of metformin; CLHO/HCQ: Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine. Bold: p < 0.05