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Table 3 Clinical characteristics of diabetes patients, comparison between in-hospital metformin users and non-users

From: Outcome and death risk of diabetes patients with Covid-19 receiving pre-hospital and in-hospital metformin therapies

  Non-met-group (n = 73) Number (%) Met-group (n = 115) Number (%) Pa
Gender
 Female 28 (38.4%) 42 (36.5) 0.80
 Male 45 (61.6%) 73 (63.5%)  
Age 67 (29–95) 63 (37–92) 0.26
Age class (years)
 29–59 25 (34.2%) 47 (40.9%) 0.44
  ≥ 60 48 (65.8%) 68 (59.1%)  
Clinical outcome
 Mortality 15 (20.5%) 4 (3.5%) 0.0002
Mortality by gender
 Female 9 (81.8%) 2 (50%) 1
 Male 6 (75.0%) 2 (50%)  
Mortality by age class
 29–59 1 (6.7%) 0 (0%)  
  ≥ 60 14 (19.18%) 4 (3.48%) 0.0006
Comorbidities
 Obesity 11 (15.1%) 20 (17.4%) 0.26
 Cardiopathy 19 (26.0%) 22 (19.1%) 0.28
 Hypertension 57 (78.1%) 68 (59.1%) 0.007
 COPD/pneumonia 8 (11.0%) 9 (7.8%) 0.46
 Smoking/former smoking 4 (5.5%) 11(9.6%) 0.41
 Neurological disease 7 (9.6%) 6 (5.2%) 0.25
 CKD 9 (12.3%) 2 (1.7%) 0.004
 Thyroid 9 (12.3%) 15 (13%) 0.89
 Dyslipidemia 33 (45.2%) 37 (32.2%) 0.07
 Neoplasia/immuno 5 (6.8%) 7 (6.1%) 0.83
 Asthma 1 (1.4%) 3 (2.6%) 0.56
 BMI 29.42 ± 5.14 29.24 ± 5.28 0.16
In-hospital clinical characteristics
 NEWS 2 (0–11) 2 (0–9.3) 0.63
 Time of stay in ICU 3 (0–94) 2 (0–41) 0.27
 Time of stay in nursery 6 (0–39) 7 (0–58) 0.54
 Total hospitalization time 10 (3–100) 11 (2–65) 0.57
 Time of MV 0.0 (0–63); 0.0 (0–26) 0.09
 In-hospital metformin therapy 115 (100%)
 In-hospital max dose of metformin 1249.13 ± 578.7
 In-hospital time of metformin therapy 8.87 ± 9.24;
 Pre-hospital metformin therapy 19 (26%) 97 (84.3%) 0.000
 Pre-hospital metformin daily dose 1235.3 ± 597.22 1127.01 ± 629.21 0.51
 In-hospital insulin therapy 18 (24.7%) 43 (37.4%) 0.08
 In-hospital time of insulin therapya 15.5 (1–98) 3 (1–42) 0.019
 Orotracheal intubation 20 (27.4%) 25 (22.5%) 0.45
 Prisma 11 (15.1%) 4 (3.6%) 0.011
 Prone 4 (5.5%) 3 (2.7%) 0.4
 Vasoactive drugs 19 (26%) 18 16.2% 0.1
 CLHO/HCQ 12 (16.9%) 13 (11.3%) 0.27
 Dexamethasone/prednisolone 65 (89.0%) 104 (90.4%) 0.75
  1. COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CKD, chronic kidney disease; NEWS/PEWS, National Early Warning Score/Pediatric Early Warning Score; Prisma, prisma hemodialysis machine; Prona, prone position; Neoplasia/immune, Neoplasia/immunosuppression; BMI, body mass index; Time of MV, Time of mechanical ventilation; In-hospital max dose of metformin: In-hospital maximum dose of metformin; CLHO/HCQ, Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine. atime in days. Bold: p < 0.05