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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of all patients hospitalized with Covid-19 and univariate in-hospital risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality and orotracheal intubation

From: Outcome and death risk of diabetes patients with Covid-19 receiving pre-hospital and in-hospital metformin therapies

Clinical features

All patients (n = 1170) number (%) median (max–min)

Mortality risk factors OR (CI 95%)

Orotracheal intubation risk factor OR (CI 95%)

Gender

 Man

618 (52.8%)

1.078 (0.608–1.91)

0.669 (0.43–1.03)

 Woman

552 (47.2%)

  

Age, years

51.8 ± 18.4

1.14 (1.11–1.17)

1.05 (1.04–1.07)

Age class

  < 29

87 (7.4%)

  

 29–59

713 (60.9%)

  

  ≥ 60

370 (31.6%)

119.11 (16.37–54.3)*

9.24 (2.22–38.51)*

Clinical outcome

 Mortality

49 (4.2%)

Mortality by age class

  < 29

0 (0%)

 29–59

1 (0.1%)

  ≥ 60

48 (13%)

Comorbidities

 Diabetes (type I or II)

188 (16.1%)

3.57 (1.96–6.48)

6.08 (3.9–9.47)

 Obesity

122 (10.4%)

0.97 (0.38–2.51)

2.03 (1.15–3.56)

 Cardiopathy

112 (9.66%)

6.34 (3.42–11.77)

3.14 (1.84–5.34)

 Hypertension

368 (31.5%)

5.92 (3.14–11.14)

4.00 (2.59–6.2)

 COPD/pneumonia

62 (5.3%)

6.95 (3.41–14.33)

2.68 (1.34–5.34)

 Smoking/former smoking

43 (3.6%)

2.46 (0.85–7.2)

1.16 (0.41–3.33)

 Neurological disease

70 (6.05%)

7.6 (2.072–24.93)

3.14 (1.67–5.88)

CKD

28 (2.4%)

8.73 (3.52–21.67)

8.13 (3.69–17.93)

 Thyroid disease

111 (9.5%)

1,63 (0.71–3.72)

2.23 (1.06–4.71)

 Dyslipidemia

171 (14.6%)

3.02 (1.64–5.62)

1.59 (0.85–2.97)

 Neoplasia/immuno

57 (4.9%)

2.34 (0.89–6.14)

2.83 (1.76–4.57)

 Asthma

51 (4.4%)

0.45 (0.06–3.3)

3.18 (0.43–23.3)

In-hospital clinical characteristics

 NEWS/PEWS

1 (0–13.2)

1.5 (1.36–1.63)

1.38 (1.28–1.48)

 Time of stay in ICU

0 (0–107)

1.082 (1.058–1.11)

1.42 (1.34–1.5)

 Time of stay in nursery

5.0 (0–61)

0.95 (0.88–1.02)

1.09 (1.06–1.12)

 Time of hospitalization

6.0 (1–112)

1.047 (1.03–1.06)

1.18 (1.15–1.21)

 Time of MV

0 (0–66)

1.16 (1.12–1.21)

NS

 Orotracheal intubation

94 (8%)

35.2 (18.42–67.65)

 Prisma

24 (2.4%)

44.162 (19.36–100.74)

NS

 Prona

18 (1.5%)

6.93 (2.19–21.88)

233.8 (30.7–1280.23)

 Vasoactive drugs

72 (6.2%)

32.15 (16.93–61.044)

690.46 (234.27–2034.92)

 CLHO/HCQ

76 (6.5%)

1.11 (1.03–1.21)

22.83 (5.2–100.17)

  1. NS, not significant, Neoplasia/immune, neoplasia/immunosuppression; Time of MV, Time of mechanical ventilation; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CKD, chronic kidney disease; NEWS/PEWS, National Early Warning Score/Pediatric Early Warning Score; Prisma, prisma hemodialysis machine; Prona, prone position; CLHO/HCQ, Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine; *compared with 29–59 group. Bold: p < 0.05