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Table 1 Participant characteristics at baseline

From: Arterial stiffness and progression of cerebral white matter hyperintensities in patients with type 2 diabetes and matched controls: a 5-year cohort study

Participant characteristics DM (n  =  45) Controls (n  =  59) p value
Male n (%) 22 (49) 28 (47) 0.89
Age (years) 59.3  ±  9.8 57.9  ±  9.8 0.47
Diabetes duration (years) 1.8 (0.8–3.2) Na
Follow-up (years) 5.6  ±  0.4 5.4  ±  0.3 < 0.05
BMI (kg/m2) 29.3  ±  5.1 25.9  ±  3.3 0.08
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 47  ±  6 38  ±  4 < 0.05
HbA1c (%) 6.5  ±  0.6 5.6  ±  0.4 < 0.05
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.4  ±  0.8 5.7  ±  1.0 < 0.05
LDL (mmol/l) 2.2  ±  0.7 3.4  ±  1.0 < 0.05
Office systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 126  ±  9 131  ±  14 0.07
Office diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 79  ±  7 83  ±  9 < 0.05
Office heart rate (bpm) 66  ±  9 62  ±  10 < 0.05
24-h systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 125  ±  9 124  ±  11 0.58
24-h diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 74  ±  6 75  ±  7 0.47
24-h heart rate (bpm) 73  ±  10 68  ±  9 < 0.05
Urine albumin creatinine ratio (mg/mmol)a 0.4 (0.3–1.0) 0.2 (0.2–0.4) < 0.05
Antidiabetic medicine (oral and GLP-1-analogues) n (%) 32 (71) 0 (0) < 0.05
Insulin n (%) 5 (11) 0 (0) < 0.05
Antihypertensives n (%) 28 (62) 15 (25) < 0.05
Statin n (%) 33 (73) 9 (15) < 0.05
Aspirin n (%) 25 (56) 2 (3) < 0.05
Current or former smoker n (%) 24 (53) 29 (49) 0.67
PWV (m/s) 8.8  ±  2.1 7.9  ±  1.4 < 0.05
  1. Parametric data presented as mean  ±  SD
  2. PWV carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity
  3. aMedian (interquartile range)