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Table 3 Subgroup analyses for all fracture and hip fracture according to study design and gender

From: Differences in the roles of types 1 and 2 diabetes in the susceptibility to the risk of fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Outcomes Factors Groups DM type OR and 95% CI P value I2 (%)/PQ statistic Ratio for OR P value between T1DM and T2DM
All fracture Study design Prospective T1DM 1.40 (1.18–1.65) < 0.001 50.6/0.108 1.21 (1.00–1.46) 0.050
T2DM 1.16 (1.07–1.27) < 0.001 68.9/0.001
Retrospective T1DM 1.86 (1.36–2.53) < 0.001 99.0/< 0.001 1.56 (1.09–2.24) 0.015
T2DM 1.19 (0.99–1.43) 0.060 96.6/< 0.001
Gender Male T1DM 1.50 (1.33–1.70) < 0.001 51.2/0.129 1.25 (0.92–1.69) 0.147
T2DM 1.20 (0.91–1.58) 0.200 93.0/< 0.001
Female T1DM 1.52 (1.17–1.97) 0.002 88.9/< 0.001 1.27 (0.97–1.66) 0.085
T2DM 1.20 (1.12–1.28) < 0.001 54.2/0.026
Both T1DM 2.47 (2.36–2.58) < 0.001 1.99 (1.40–2.83) < 0.001
T2DM 1.24 (0.87–1.75) 0.232 87.8/< 0.001
Hip fracture Study design Prospective T1DM 4.56 (2.49–8.34) < 0.001 91.5/< 0.001 3.28 (1.76–6.10) < 0.001
T2DM 1.39 (1.21–1.60) < 0.001 80.6/< 0.001
Retrospective T1DM 3.88 (2.68–5.61) < 0.001 96.0/< 0.001 3.43 (2.35–5.03) < 0.001
T2DM 1.13 (1.03–1.24) 0.010 89.3/< 0.001
Gender Male T1DM 3.95 (2.10–7.43) < 0.001 95.7/< 0.001 3.95 (2.09–7.46) < 0.001
T2DM 1.00 (0.93–1.08) 0.946 36.5/0.178
Female T1DM 4.76 (2.66–8.52) < 0.001 95.9/< 0.001 3.33 (1.83–6.05) < 0.001
T2DM 1.43 (1.25–1.64) < 0.001 88.2/< 0.001
Both T1DM 2.41 (2.20–2.65) < 0.001 2.15 (1.80–2.58) < 0.001
T2DM 1.12 (0.96–1.31) 0.136 41.0/0.132