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Table 1 The characteristics of identified studies and involved participants

From: Differences in the roles of types 1 and 2 diabetes in the susceptibility to the risk of fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Region Study design Sample size/DM Mean age (years) Male (%) Smoker (%) BMI (kg/m2) DM type Follow-up (years) Adjusted factors NOS score
NTHS 1999 [28] Norway Prospective 35,444/1850 50.0–74.0 47.5 30.4 NA I and II 9.0 Age, BMI and daily smoking 8
IWHS 2001 [29] USA Prospective 32,089/1729 61.6 0.0 15.0 26.9 I and II 9.6 Age, smoking, estrogen use, BMI, and WTHR 9
BMES 2001 [30] Australia Prospective 3654/216 66.2 43.3 NA NA II 5.0 Age, sex, and BMI 7
SOF 2001 [31] USA Prospective 9754/657 71.0 0.0 NA 26.2 II 9.4 Age, BMI, calcaneal BMD, height, height loss since age 25, contrast sensitivity, walking speed, consumed alcohol in past year, resting pulse, mother fractured hip, on feet < 4 h a day, use of long-acting benzodiazepines, and calcium intake 9
H-EPESE 2002 [32] USA Prospective 2884/690 71.8 42.1 42.1 NA II 7.0 Age, gender, BMI, ever smoked, previous stroke, lower extremity functional ability, and distance vision 7
SIR 2005 [33] Sweden Retrospective 24,605/24,605 20.7 51.0 NA NA I 9.9 Age, sex, and calendar-period-matched general population from the entire Swedish inpatient registry 6
Dobnig 2006 [34] Australia Prospective 1664/583  > 70.0 0.0 NA NA II 2.0 Age and weight 6
NHS 2006 [35] USA Prospective 109,983/8640 56.3 0.0 17.9 26.0 I and II 20.0 Age, BMI, physical activity, menopausal status and estrogen use, smoking and daily intake of calcium, vitamin D, and protein 9
Tromsø 2006 [36] Norway Prospective 27,159/455 47.0 47.7 37.0 25.5 I and II 6.0 Age, BMI, smoking, and metabolic features 8
WHI 2006 [37] USA Prospective 93,676/5285 63.4 0.0 6.2 NA II 7.0 Age, ethnicity, weight, height; time-dependent history of falls, previous fracture, history of osteoporosis, trouble seeing at baseline, alcohol or tobacco use, calcium and vitamin D intake, exercise, bisphosphonate, estrogen, steroid, insulin, SERM, or thyroid hormone use 8
Melton 2008 [38] USA Retrospective 1964/1964 61.7 51.0 NA NA II 11.8 Age, BMI, calcaneal BMD, or a host of other osteoporosis risk factors 6
CHS 2011 [39] USA Prospective 5641/1456 72.8 42.0 12.0 26.7 II 10.9 Age, sex, race, BMI, AAI < 0.9 8
Jung 2012 [40] Korea Retrospective 2282/1268 61.0 0.0 NA 25.0 II 7.0 Age 7
Rotterdam 2013 [41] Netherland Prospective 4135/420 68.4 40.6 25.0 26.4 II 12.2 Age, sex, height, weight, and femoral neck BMD 8
SCI-DC 2014 [42] UK Retrospective 3,801,874/201,874 20.0–84.0 NA NA NA I and II NA Age, calendar year, SIMD, and for the overall estimate, an SIMD-age interaction 7
SIDIAP 2015 [43] Spain Prospective 171,931/58,483 62.6 56.5 15.6 29.3 II 2.6 BMI, previous fracture, oral corticoids 7
THIN 2015 [44] UK Retrospective 334,266/30,394 34.0 56.1 26.7 25.5 I 5.7 Exposure to steroid medication, history of prior fracture, and presence of chronic kidney disease 6
Manitoba 2016 [45] Canada Retrospective 57,938/8840 64.3 0.0 NA 27.1 II 7.2 FRAX scores, burden of comorbidity, falls, prescription osteoporosis treatments, and insulin therapy 8
FRAILCO 2017 [46] Sweden Prospective 428,305/84,702 80.8 42.4 NA 25.4 I and II 1.3 Age, sex, weight, height, previous fracture, RA, glucocorticoid, alendronate use, and CCI, and self-reported known fall injury 8
Holm 2018 [47] Denmark Retrospective 6285/229 61.1 0.0 28.0 23.4 II 5.8 Baseline age group, BMI group, modified Charlson index, estrogen deficiency, prevalent hyperthyroidism, RA, CPD, MOF, former osteoporosis treatment, glucocorticoid use, calcium intake, family fracture history, current smoking, exercise alcohol related diagnoses and current use of ACE, ANGII, loop, thiazide, SSRI, TCA 7
DNPR 2019 [48] Denmark Retrospective 1,328,336/332,084 59.0 52.9 NA NA I and II 6.0 Age, sex, previous fracture, anti-osteoporosis medication 7
PK-VF 2019 [49] China Prospective 982/186 62.0 0.0 NA 26.0 II 5.2 Age, YSM, BMI, LS BMD, and any previous fractures 7