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Table 5 Results of multiple regression analysis with IR parameters as dependent variables and biomarkers as explanatory variables

From: The immune-opioid axis in prediabetes: predicting prediabetes with insulin resistance by plasma interleukin-10 and endomorphin-2 to kappa-opioid receptors ratio

Dependent variables Explanatory variables β t p F model df p R2
1. FPG Model     3.142 7/82 0.005 0.211
IL-10 0.279 2.661 0.009
zLnKOR 0.374 2.625 0.010
zLn(EM2/KOR) 0.302 2.537 0.130
2. Insulin Model     4.669 7/82 < 0.001 0.224
IL-10 0.397 3.973 < 0.001
zLnKOR 0.339 2.498 0.015
zLn(EM2/KOR) 0.271 2.393 0.019
3. I/G Model     2.907 7/82 0.009 0.130
IL-10 0.322 3.041 0.003
4. HbA1c Model     6.200 7/82 < 0.001 0.290
IL-10 0.318 3.333 0.001
zLnKOR 0.386 2.977 0.004
zLn(EM2/KOR) 0.356 3.284 0.002
5. HOMA2IR Model     4.809 7/82 < 0.001 0.293
IL-10 0.401 4.029 < 0.001
zLnKOR 0.355 2.624 0.010
zLn(EM2/KOR) 0.280 2.485 0.015
6. HOMA2%S Model     4.836 7/82 < 0.001 0.297
IL-10 − 0.348 − 3.497 0.001
zLnKOR − 0.371 − 2.749 0.007
zLn(EM2/KOR) − 0.290 − 2.577 0.012
  1. zLn: z-score of the natural logarithm, FPG: fasting plasma glucose, IL: interleukin; KOR: κ-opioid receptor; MOR: µopioid receptor; EM2: Endomorphin-2; βEP: β-endorphin; HOMA2IR: homeostasis model assessment 2 of insulin resistance, HOMA2%S: homeostasis model assessment 2 of insulin sensitivity percentage; HOMA2%B: homeostasis model assessment 2 of beta-cell function percentage