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Table 3 Model-generated estimated marginal means values (SE) of the biomarkers in prediabetes (versus healthy controls) and prediabetes−IR versus prediabetes+IR and healthy controls

From: The immune-opioid axis in prediabetes: predicting prediabetes with insulin resistance by plasma interleukin-10 and endomorphin-2 to kappa-opioid receptors ratio

Biomarkers ControlA Prediabetes-IRB Prediabetes+IRC
IL-10 7.981 (1.062)B,C 11.461 (1.026)A 14.082 (1.026)A
zLn βEP 12.146 (2.308)B,C 23.652 (2.230)A 20.638 (2.230)A
zLn (βEP/MOR) 5.362 (0.677) 5.976 (0.654) 5.572 (0.654)
zLn IL-6 0.314 (− 0.187) 0.157 (0.180) 0.194 (0.180)
zLnMOR 0.431 (− 0.180)B,C 0.194 (0.174)A 0.149 (0.174)A
zLnEM2 0.518 (− 0.180)B,C 0.163 (0.174)A 0.338 (0.174)A
zLnKOR 0.362 (− 0.186) 0.213 (0.180) 0.140 (0.180)
zLn (EM2/KOR) 0.158 (− 0.191) 0.038 (− 0.185) 0.188 (0.185)
  1. A,B,C Pairwise comparisons between group means
  2. zLn: z-score of the natural logarithm, IL: interleukin; KOR: κ-opioid receptor; MOR: µopioid receptor; EM2: Endomorphin-2; βEP: β-endorphin