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Table 1 Sample characteristics for the total sample and stratified according to treatment satisfaction (survey 2018–2019)

From: Increased risk of impaired treatment satisfaction among girls/women and young people with suboptimal HbA1c: Results of a nationwide type 1 diabetes study

Characteristic Treatment satisfaction p-valueb
Total   Very good   Good   Poora  
% or mean (SD) N % or mean (SD) N % or mean (SD) N % or mean (SD) N
Sex          0.002
 Male 41% 238 46% 88 44% 117 28% 33  
 Female 59% 337 54% 103 56% 149 72% 85  
Age [years] 20.9 (4.0) 575 20.5 (3.9) 191 20.9 (3.8) 266 21.4 (4.4) 118 0.002
Age group 0.086
 14–17 years 26% 151 27% 52 25% 66 28% 33 Ref.
 18–21 years 38% 221 42% 81 40% 106 29% 34 0.062
 22–25 years 21% 121 18% 34 22% 59 24% 28 0.888
 26–30 years 14% 82 13% 24 13% 35 19% 23 0.499
Socioeconomic status         0.606
 Low 16% 90 16% 30 16% 43 14% 17 Ref.
 Intermediate 45% 258 44% 84 43% 114 51% 60 0.479
 High 39% 225 39% 75 41% 109 35% 41 0.805
 Unknown 0% 2 1% 2 0% 0 0% 0 1.000
Age at manifestation [years] 2.9 (1.2) 575 2.9 (1.2) 191 2.9 (1.1) 266 2.9 (1.2) 118 0.607
Diabetes duration [years] 18.0 (3.7) 575 17.6 (3.6) 191 18.0 (3.7) 266 18.5 (4.1) 118 0.493
BMI-SDS 0.37 (0.95) 568 0.40 (0.90) 189 0.31 (0.99) 264 0.44 (0.95) 115 0.613
HbA1c [mmol/mol] 61.6 (14.9) 560 57.3 (10.8) 188 62.2 (15.4) 258 67.3 (17.4) 114 0.027
HbA1c [%] 7.8 (1.3) 560 7.4 (1.0) 188 7.8 (1.4) 258 8.2 (1.3) 114  < 0.001
 < 7.5% (< 58 mmol/mol) 46% 267 60% 115 46% 122 25% 30 Ref.
 ≥ 7.5% (≥ 58 mmol/mol) 51% 293 38% 73 52% 136 71% 84  < 0.001
 Unknown 3% 15 2% 3 3% 8 3% 4 0.060
Insulin pump          0.101
 No 29% 165 22% 42 33% 87 31% 36 Ref.
 Yes 71% 409 78% 149 67% 178 69% 82 0.037
 Unknown 0% 1 0% 0 0% 1 0% 0 1.000
Glucose sensorc          0.303
 No, never 18% 106 18% 35 18% 48 19% 23 Ref.
 Yes, temporarily 17% 99 17% 33 15% 40 22% 26 0.632
 Yes, permanently 64% 369 64% 123 67% 177 58% 69 0.261
 Unknown 0% 1 0% 0 0% 1 0% 0 1.000
Participation in the Type 1 Diabetes Disease Management Program      0.329
 Yes 45% 260 48% 92 44% 117 43% 51 Ref.
 No 32% 185 29% 55 32% 84 39% 46 0.089
 Don´t know 22% 124 22% 42 23% 61 18% 21 0.986
 Unknown 1% 6 1% 2 2% 4 0% 0 1.000
Hypoglycemia with hospitalization during the past 12 months     0.960
 No 97% 560 98% 187 97% 258 97% 115  
 Yes 3% 15 2% 4 3% 8 3% 3  
Diabetic ketoacidosis with hospitalization during the past 12 months     0.471
 No 95% 548 97% 185 95% 252 94% 111  
 Yes 5% 27 3% 6 5% 14 6% 7  
Diabetes-related long-term complications        0.527
 No 78% 446 80% 153 76% 201 78% 92 Ref.
 Yes 17% 98 17% 32 18% 48 15% 18 0.324
 Unknown 5% 31 3% 6 6% 17 7% 8 0.676
  1. aThe possible answers “moderate”, “poor” and “very poor” were grouped
  2. bp-value according to likelihood ratio test (global) or Wald test for categorical variables (comparison with reference) adjusted for sex and age group
  3. cIncluding both continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and flash glucose monitoring (FGM)