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Table 4 Results of subgroup analysis

From: Metabolic syndrome and esophageal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta‑analysis

Subgroup analyses No. of studies Heterogeneity Model Meta-analysis
I2 (%) P OR 95% CI P
Study design        
 Case–control study 2 0 0.54 Fixed-effect 1.15 1.06–1.26 0.0009
 Cohort study 4 49 0.12 Fixed-effect 1.19 1.03–1.39 0.02
Location        
 Asian 1 NA NA NA 0.51 0.25–1.04 0.06
 Western 5 0 0.88 Fixed-effect 1.17 1.09–1.26 < 0.0001
Metabolic conditions        
 Obesity 3 85 0.001 Random-effect 1.15 0.88–1.51 0.32
 Hyperglycemia 3 0 0.80 Fixed-effect 1.12 1.03–1.21 0.006
 High cholesterol 2 0 0.69 Fixed-effect 1.05 0.89–1.24 0.59
 High triglycerides 2 0 0.44 Fixed-effect 0.96 0.88–1.04 0.31
 Hypertension 3 67 0.05 Random-effect 1.23 1.04–1.46 0.02
Pathological types        
 ESCC 2 0 0.98 Fixed-effect 1.09 0.89–1.34 0.42
 EAC 5 17 0.90 Fixed-effect 1.19 1.10–1.28 < 0.0001
  1. ESCC esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, EAC esophageal adenocarcinoma