Skip to main content

Table 2 Changes in physical and blood test after sodium-glucose transporter-2 inhibitor treatment in type 2 diabetic patients without heart failure

From: Enhancement of the serum chloride concentration by administration of sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor and its mechanisms and clinical significance in type 2 diabetic patients: a pilot study

 Normal rangeBeforeAfterAfter vs. before (increase/unchanged/decrease)p value
Physical examination (n = 10)
 Body weight (kg) 80.4 ± 17.577.8 ± 17.30/0/100.002*
 Blood pressure (mmHg)
  Systolic pressure 128 ± 9.83121 ± 13.52/0/80.11
  Diastolic pressure 75.8 ± 9.075.6 ± 9.44/0/60.96
 Heart rate (bpm) 68.8 ± 11.470.3 ± 13.56/0/40.59
Diabetes-related blood test (n = 10)
 HbA1C (%)4.6–6.28.55 ± 0.947.67 ± 0.860/0/100.0007*
 Fasting blood glucose (mg/dL)73–109179 ± 40.5138 ± 18.41/0/90.006*
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)63–163106 ± 18.597.6 ± 22.43/0/70.07
 HDL cholesterol mg/dL)48–10347.7 ± 8.747.3 ± 9.78/0/20.86
B-type natriuretic peptide (pg/mL) (n = 6)< 18.48.8 ± 3.7512.0 ± 9.352/2/2′0.47
Peripheral blood test (n = 10)
 Hemoglobin (g/dL)11.6–14.813.9 ± 1.2914.1 ± 1.198/1/1′0.04*
 Hematocrit (%)35.1–44.441.0 ± 3.5142.4 ± 3.588/1/1′0.014*
 Mean red blood cell volume (fL)83.6–98.290.1 ± 3.4891.6 ± 3.207/3/0′0.048*
 Serum electrolytes
  Sodium (mEq/L)138–145140 ± 2.32140 ± 1.895/2/3′0.27
  Potassium (mEq/L)3.6–4.84.0 ± 0.253.95 ± 0.234/1/5′0.56
  Chloride (mEq/L)101–108104 ± 3.23106 ± 2.809/0/10.004*
 Blood urea nitrogen (mg/dL)8.0–20.014.2 ± 5.7613.8 ± 2.844/1/5′0.81
 Serum creatinine (mg/dL)0.46–0.790.73 ± 0.190.75 ± 0.207/0/30.46
 Uric acid (mg/dL)3.7–75.46 ± 1.254.50 ± 0.932/0/80.014*
Urinary examination (n = 6)
 Urinary electrolytes
  Sodium (mEq/L) 159 ± 42.698.0 ± 35.10/0/60.02*
  Potassium (mEq/L) 57.8 ± 24.457.8 ± 24.41/0/50.32
  Chloride (mEq/L) 162 ± ± 59.3104 ± 35.90/0/60.08
Neurohormonal test (n = 6)
 Adrenaline (pg/mL)< 0.10.026 ± 0.0240.029 ± 0.0224/0/20.34
 Noradrenaline (pg/mL)0.1–0.50.27 ± 0.0780.27 ± 0.093/0/30.95
 Renin activity (ng/mL/h)0.2–2.33.13 ± 3.135.67 ± 4.795/0/10.19
Aldosterone (pg/mL)36–24077.7 ± 12.794.7 ± 30.75/0/10.15
 Anti-diuretic hormone (pg/mL)< 2.81.33 ± 0.461.55 ± 0.893/0/30.66
Venous blood gas and metabolites (n = 6)
 pO2 (mmHg)39.2 ± 13.652.3 ± 14.96/0/00.03*
 Total CO2 (mEq/L)28.3 ± 2.6625.7 ± 1.710/0/60.01*
 Actual HCO3 (mEq/L)26.9 ± 2.4824.4 ± 1.620/0/60.008*
 Acetoacetate (μmol/L)13–6941.8 ± 25.099.7 ± 45.46/0/00.02*
 3-Hydroxybutyrate (μmol/L)0–7670.2 ± 38.8200 ± 1355/0/10.06
 Total ketone bodies (μmol/L)26–122112 ± 63.5300 ± 1775/0/10.04*
  1. *Statistically significant difference between before and after treatments (p < 0.05, paired t test)