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Table 1 Baseline characteristics at enrollment

From: Combination therapy of flaxseed and hesperidin enhances the effectiveness of lifestyle modification in cardiovascular risk control in prediabetes: a randomized controlled trial

Characteristics Total (n = 48) Flax-Hes group (n = 24) Control group (n = 24) P value
Age (y) 45.63 ± 11.00 44.50 ± 10.66 46.75 ± 11.46 0.485
Sex (M/F) 25/23 12/12 13/11 1.000
Metabolic characteristics
 Height (cm) 166.96 ± 10.54 167.38 ± 9.03 166.54 ± 12.04 0.787
 Weight (kg) 91.24 ± 14.96 92.08 ± 16.06 90.40 ± 14.08 0.700
 WC (cm) 104.71 ± 7.50 105.25 ± 6.43 104.17 ± 8.55 0.622
 BMI (kg/m2) 33.09 ± 5.42 33.27 ± 5.43 32.92 ± 5.51 0.826
Blood pressure (mmHg)
 Systolic 128.73 ± 14.94 129.71 ± 14.77 127.80 ± 15.35 0.660
 Diastolic 85.24 ± 12.93 86.21 ± 14.66 84.32 ± 11.26 0.615
 MET (h/d) 31.93 ± 4.45 32.65 ± 2.97 31.22 ± 5.54 0.270
 Energy (kcal) 2473.56 ± 487.94 2535.15 ± 540.39 2411.98 ± 431.96 0.388
Serum biochemistry tests
 FBS (mg/dL) 113.05 ± 19.61 117.08 ± 21.16 107.96 ± 16.62 0.123
 Insulin (mU/L) 13.18 ± 7.17 12.58 ± 6.85 13.94 ± 7.67 0.545
 HOMA-IR 3.69 ± 2.34 3.78 ± 2.57 3.57 ± 2.10 0.773
 QUICKI 0.33 ± 0.03 0.33 ± 0.03 0.32 ± 0.02 0.902
 Triglyceride (mg/dL) 162.02 ± 71.27 159.83 ± 79.09 164.78 ± 61.98 0.824
 HDL-C (mg/dL) 35.51 ± 9.69 36.15 ± 9.82 34.68 ± 9.73 0.629
 LDL-C (mg/dL) 138.36 ± 37.53 140.18 ± 42.21 135.93 ± 31.25 0.721
 hs-CRP (ng/dL) 5865.44 ± 4564.82 6879.25 ± 5609.71 4584.84 ± 3447.53 0.102
 TNF-α (pg/mL) 23.60 ± 7.63 25.10 ± 8.84 21.49 ± 4.98 0.138
Atherogenic indices
 Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) 0.64 ± 0.25 0.61 ± 0.27 0.67 ± 0.24 0.515
 Non-HDL/HDL ratio 5.28 ± 2.19 5.25 ± 1.81 5.33 ± 2.67 0.910
 LDL/HDL ratio 4.25 ± 1.78 4.15 ± 1.62 4.41 ± 1.99 0.645
  1. WC waist circumference, BMI body mass index, MET metabolic equivalent of tasks, FBS fasting blood sugar, HOMA-IR The homeostatic model assessment, QUICKI quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, HDL-C high density lipoprotein, LDL-C low density lipoprotein
  2. Data are shown as Mean ± SD
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