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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of study participants in this cross-sectional and retrospective cohort studies

From: Intraperitoneal, but not retroperitoneal, visceral adipose tissue is associated with diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional, retrospective pilot analysis

  Cross-sectional study Retrospective cohort study
  Prevalence of DM (−) Prevalence of DM (+) P Incidence of DM (−) Incidence of DM (+) P
n 745 58   594 30  
Age (years) 50.6 ± 10.6 58.6 ± 9.5 < 0.0001 50.8 ± 10.6 54.4 ± 9.8 0.0703
Male 458 (61.5) 48 (82.8) 0.0012 370 (62.3) 24 (80.0) 0.0498
Body mass index (kg/m2) 22.6 ± 3.4 25.8 ± 4.9 < 0.0001 22.6 ± 3.4 25.7 ± 4.5 < 0.0001
Family history of diabetes mellitus 102 (13.7) 22 (37.9) < 0.0001 516 (86.9) 25 (83.3) 0.5780
Current smoker 120 (16.1) 18 (31.0) 0.0037 500 (84.2) 24 (80.0) 0.5431
Regular exercise 195 (26.2) 25 (43.1) 0.0054 434 (73.1) 25 (83.3) 0.2134
Alcohol drinking habit 163 (21.9) 13 (22.4) 0.9245 464 (78.1) 22 (73.3) 0.5381
Hypertension 192 (25.8) 31 (53.5) < 0.0001 441 (74.2) 19 (63.3) 0.1854
Dyslipidemia 220 (29.5) 35 (60.3) < 0.0001 420 (70.7) 19 (63.3) 0.3882
C-reactive proteina (nmol/L) 1.9 (1.9–7.6) 7.6 (4.3–24.8) < 0.0001 1.9 (1.9–6.9) 8.6 (1.9–11.7) 0.0020
Creatinine (μmol/L) 68.3 ± 13.5 72.6 ± 13.9 0.0208 68.5 ± 13.6 74.4 ± 11.0 0.0195
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) 5.3 ± 0.5 8.0 ± 2.1 < 0.0001 5.3 ± 0.4 6.1 ± 0.5 < 0.0001
Total adipose tissue area index (cm2/m2) 79.4 ± 40.2 123.3 ± 59.0 < 0.0001 77.8 ± 39.9 111.1 ± 37.0 < 0.0001
VAT area index(cm2/m2) 31.5 ± 21.2 58.6 ± 24.9 < 0.0001 30.7 ± 21.0 51.2 ± 19.5 < 0.0001
IVAT area index(cm2/m2) 19.3 ± 14.6 38.3 ± 17.7 < 0.0001 18.8 ± 14.4 33.1 ± 14.2 < 0.0001
RVAT area index(cm2/m2) 12.2 ± 7.5 20.0 ± 9.4  < 0.0001 12.0 ± 7.4 18.1 ± 7.1 < 0.0001
SAT area index(cm2/m2) 47.9 ± 24.7 64.6 ± 43.8 < 0.0001 47.1 ± 24.3 59.9 ± 27.0 0.0053
DSAT area index (cm2/m2) 27.9 ± 15.1 40.6 ± 26.3 < 0.0001 27.5 ± 15.1 36.7 ± 15.3 0.0012
SSAT area index (cm2/m2) 20.0 ± 11.4 24.4 ± 20.4 0.0090 19.6 ± 11.2 23.2 ± 14.3 0.0910
VAT/SAT area ratio 0.7 ± 0.4 1.1 ± 0.5 < 0.0001 0.7 ± 0.4 1.0 ± 0.4 0.0001
IVAT/RVAT area ratio 1.6 ± 0.7 2.0 ± 0.6 < 0.0001 1.5 ± 0.7 1.9 ± 0.7 0.0017
DSAT/SSAT area ratio 1.5 ± 0.6 1.8 ± 0.6 0.0001 1.5 ± 0.6 1.8 ± 0.7 0.0107
  1. Continuous variables are presented as mean ± 1 standard deviation, or median (interquartile range), and categorical variables are presented as number (percentage)
  2. DM diabetes mellitus, VAT visceral adipose tissue, IVAT intraperitoneal VAT, RVAT retroperitoneal VAT, SAT subcutaneous adipose tissue, DSAT deep SAT, SSAT superficial SAT. aValues were analyzed after log transformation