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Table 2 changes in clinical and paraclinical tests

From: The effect of crocin supplementation on glycemic control, insulin resistance and active AMPK levels in patients with type 2 diabetes: a pilot study

Variables Group Before After Mean changes (95% CIs) P valuea P valueb
SBP (mmHg) Crocin 133.86 ± 12.83 123.06 ± 17.12 − 10.8 (− 16.79, − 4.58) 0.002 0.092
Control 128.27 ± 18.49 126.06 ± 19.64 − 2.2 (− 6.21, 1.47) 0.298
DBP (mmHg) Crocin 79.92 ± 8.22 77.2 1± 10.55 − 2.7 (− 6.59, 1.52) 0.149 0.750
Control 78.95 ± 14.64 77.25 ± 12.44 − 1.7 (− 6.97, 3.19) 0.758
FBS (mg/dL) Crocin 148.73 ± 30.07 129.26 ± 29.31 − 19.47 (− 30.23, − 8.32) 0.002 0.015
Control 157.18 ± 63.29 160.18 ± 57.34 3 (− 22.19, 23.55) 0.249
Insulin (mU/L) Crocin 17.27 ± 7.14 13.51 ± 4.62 − 3.75 (− 6.16, − 1.33) 0.021 0.046
Control 14.95 ± 5.52 15.2 5± 5.04 0.29 (− 1.28, 2.29) 0.931
QUICKI Crocin 0.12 ± 0.008 0.13 ± 0.007 0.006 (0.003, 0.009) 0.001 0.001
Control 0.13 ± 0.007 0.13 ± 0.007 − 0.0009 (− 0.003, 0.001) 0.433
HOMA−IR Crocin 6.33 ± 2.85 4.34 ± 1.95 − 1.99 (−2.95, −1.07) 0.001 0.001
Control 5.74 ± 2.85 5.86 ± 2.43 0.11 (− 0.64, 0.85) 0.858
HOMA−β Crocin 81.75 ± 42.49 92.99 ± 70.92 11.24 (− 13.98, 39) 0.330 0.930
Control 81.67 ± 60.54 88.45 ± 91.08 6.77 (− 12.07, 27.63) 0.910
HbA1c Crocin 7.80 ± 1..29 7.36 ± 1.47 − 0.44 (− 0.90, − 0.02) 0.071 0.045
Control 7.61 ± 1.62 7.86 ± 1.75 0.25 (− 0.22, 0.71) 0.303
pAMPK (pg/mg protein) Crocin 34.55 ± 53.52 18.20 ± 7.69 − 16.34 (− 40.64, 0.56) 0.378 0.433
Control 27.72 ± 20.57 20.14 ± 10.81 − 7.57 (− 18.5, 1.74) 0.131
  1. SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, FBS fasting blood sugar, QUICKI quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, HOMA-β homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, pAMPK phospho-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase
  2. aBased on paired t test for within group comparison
  3. bBased on ANCOVA model that regressed changes from baseline on treatment group, baseline value of the outcome and height