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Table 1 Baseline characteristics at enrollment

From: The effect of crocin supplementation on glycemic control, insulin resistance and active AMPK levels in patients with type 2 diabetes: a pilot study

Variable Crocin group (n = 25) Placebo group (n = 25) P value*
Age (years) 57.08 ± 7.41 59.86 ± 9.46 0.122
Sex (M/F) (n) 4/21 3/22  > 0.999
Metabolic characteristics
 Height (cm) 158.97 ± 6.93 155.11 ± 5.11 0.04
 Weight (kg) 77.08 ± 10.18 74.18 ± 7.97 0.296
 Body fat (%) 41.18 ± 9.07 43.56 ± 7.61 0.329
 BMI (kg/m2) 30.64 ± 4.79 30.85 ± 3.19 0.865
 WC (cm) 104.65 ± 9.72 104.9 ± 8.84 0.927
 WHR 0.96 ± 0.06 0.96 ± 0.05 0.813
Medication use [n (%)]
 Glucose-lowering medications
  Metformin 22 (88) 19 (76) 0.346
   As single OHA 6 (26.1) 9 (40.9) 0.353
  Sulfonylureas 12 (48) 7 (28) 0.231
   As single OHA 0 (0) 1 (4.5) 0.489
  Thiazolidinediones 0 (0) 2 (8) 0.233
  Meglitinides 4 (16) 0 (0) 0.109
  DPP-4 inhibitors 4 (16) 5 (20) 0.722
  α-Glucosidase inhibitors 1 (4) 2 (8) 0.608
 Lipid-lowering medications 15 (60) 17 (68) 0.514
 Anti-hypertensive medications 10 (40) 11 (44) 0.768
Dietary factors
 Total energy (kcal) 1853.49 ± 483.73 1899.09 ± 467.18 0.749
 Dietary carbohydrate (g/day) 242.08 ± 64.07 255.62 ± 79.22 0.531
 Dietary protein (g/day) 61.48 ± 18.78 61.34 ± 21.86 0.982
 Dietary fat (g/day) 73.75 ± 33.28 74.34 ± 23.35 0.945
 Dietary cholesterol (mg/day) 184.42 ± 98.87 203.01 ± 112.23 0.558
 Dietary fiber (g/day) 16.22 ± 5.36 17.94 ± 5.07 0.277
 Vitamin A (mg/day) 567.06 ± 356.17 821.43 ± 715.09 0.247
 Β-carotenoid (mg/day) 285.05 ± 265.38 401.34 ± 666.84 0.982
MET (min/day) 741.58 ± 395.72 874.4 ± 857.06 0.725
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 133.86 ± 12.83 128.27 ± 18.49 0.248
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 79.92 ± 8.22 78.95 ± 14.64 0.346
  1. BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference, WHR waist to hip ratio, MET metabolic equivalent of tasks, DPP-4 dipeptidyl peptidase 4, OHA oral hypoglycemic agent
  2. Mean ± SD (all such values)
  3. * Based on independent t test for continuous data and Chi square test for categorical variables, both groups were well matched in respect to baseline characteristics, except for height