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Table 1 Characteristics of the study subjects, as stratified by insulin resistance status

From: Potential roles of psychological and oxidative stress in insulin resistance: a cohort-based study

Variable Insulin resistance No insulin resistance p
N (F) 122 (7) 112 (12)  
Age; years 41.00 (39.62, 42.38) 40.00 (38.52, 41.47) 0.39
Metabolic syndrome; n (%) 86 (67.71) 24 (21.42%) < 0.0001
Atherogenic dyslipidemia; n (%) 36 (28.35) 9 (8.03) 0.0001
FRS 5.40 (4.26, 6.53) 3.20 (2.22, 4.17) 0.0001
BMI; kg/m2 31.44 (30.55, 32.32) 27.75 (26.95, 28.55) < 0.0001
W/H ratio 0.977 (0.973, 0.990) 0.91 (0.895, 0.926) < 0.0001
Overweight; n (%) 44 (34.64) 58 (51.78) 0.01
Obesity; n (%) 78 (61.42) 25 (23.21) < 0.0001
Stable CHD, n (%) 13 (10.23%) 4 (3.57%) 0.06
Coronary plaque; n (%)a 32 (33.33) 13 (21.31) 0.11
Hypertension; n(%) 87 (71.31) 49 (43.75) < 0.0001
Current smoking; n (%) 42 (33.07) 35 (31.25) 0.98
Total cholesterol; mmol/L 5.40 (5.18, 5.61) 5.05 (4.81, 5.28) 0.08
LDL cholesterol; mmol/L 3.12 (2.94, 3.30) 2.99 (2.80, 3.17) 0.32
HDL cholesterol; mmol/L 1.20 (1.15, 1.24) 1.29 (1.25, 1.34) 0.01
Triglycerides, mmol/L 2.05 (1.68, 2.42) 1.34 (1.05, 1.62) < 0.001
Glucose; mmol/L 5.40 (5.24, 5.57) 5.10 (4.99, 5.20) < 0.0001
ALT; U/L 44.00 (40,49, 49.50) 38.00 (32,82, 39.77) 0.002
AST; U/L 34.00 (31.89, 36.90) 30.00 (28.07, 31.37) 0.002
Total bilirubin; µmol/L 12.00 (10.42, 13.57) 13.00 (11.53, 14.46) 0.16
Uric acid; µmol/L 378.00 (359.61, 396.38) 334.50 (315.95, 353.04) < 0.0001
Serum creatinine; µmol/L 91.00 (87.78, 94.21) 89.00 (85.84, 92.15) 0.30
SBP; mm Hg 135.00 (131.40, 138.66) 120.00 (115.92, 124.07) < 0.0001
DBP; mm Hg 85.00 (82.65, 87.35) 80.00 (76.56, 82.43) 0.0009
cIMT; mm 0.56 (0.550, 0.571) 0.54 (0.535, 0.547) 0.001
FMD; % 7.08 (6.30, 7.85) 7.57 (6.75, 8.38) 0.31
CRP; mg/L 1.29 (1.229, 1.36) 0.88 (0.53, 1.23) 0.0001
TNF-α; pg/mL 0.92 (0.90, 0.94) 0.82 (0.74, 0.89) 0.02
Fibrinogen; g/L 3.30 (3.11, 3.48) 3.20 (3.01, 3.38) 0.61
Insulin; µIU/mL 23.82 (20.10, 27.54) 11.37 (10.55, 12.18) < 0.0001
HOMA-IR 3.02 (2.78, 3.26) 1.46 (1.35, 1.56) < 0.0001
Plasma 8-iso-PGF; pg/mL 7.60 (6.55, 8.03) 6.39 (5.21, 6,56) 0.04
Urine cortisol; ng/mg of creatinine 119.70 (105.01, 134.40) 89.80 (76.90, 102.69) < 0.001
PSS-10 score 17.00 (15.73, 18.27) 16.0 (14.86, 17.30) 0.62
Medications, n (%)
Aspirin 1 (0.82) 5 (4.46) 0.07
 ACEI/ARB 31 (25.40) 10 (8.93) 0.001
 β-blocker 28 (22.95) 12 (10.71) 0.01
 Ca-blocker 10 (8.10) 3 (2.68) 0.05
 Diuretics 22 (18.03) 5 (4.46) 0.001
 Lipid-lowering agents 7 (5.74) 4 (3.57) 0.43
  1. Data are expressed as no. (%), or median (95% CI)
  2. Framingham Risk Score, 10-year risk of developing coronary heart disease; CHD coronary heart disease, BMI body mass index, W/H waist/hip, FMD flow-mediated dilation, cIMT carotid intima-media thickness, LDL low density lipoprotein, HDL high density lipoprotein, CRP C-reactive protein, 8-iso-PGF 8-iso-prostaglandin F, TNF-α tissue necrotic factor-α, SBP (DBP) systolic (diastolic) blood pressure, HOMA-IR the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, PSS perceived stress scale, ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate aminotransferase
  3. an (%) subjects who underwent computed tomography coronary angiography