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Table 1 Characteristics of the study participants

From: Association of serum fibroblast growth factor 19 levels with arteriosclerosis parameters assessed by arterial stiffness and atherogenic index of plasma in patients with type 2 diabetes

VariableControlsT2Dp for trend
TotalT1T2T3
FGF19 (pg/mL)232.3 (122.8–280.8)138.2 (66.5–181.3)**< 82.682.6–149.6> 149.6 
N (male %)50 (19.6)200 (60.5)**67 (62.7)67 (53.7)66 (65.2)0.776
Diabetes duration (months)N49.23 (1.0–72.0)51.38 (2.0–96.0)61.22 (1.0–96.0)34.87 (1.0–36.25)0.185
Age (years)35.3 ± 10.952.4 ± 10.7**52.1 ± 11.252.3 ± 10.253.0 ± 10.80.626
BMI (kg/m2)22.5 ± 2.725.8 ± 3.6**26.3 ± 3.526.0 ± 3.125.2 ± 4.10.061
SBP (mmHg)109.8 ± 7.1136.2 ± 16.4**134.6 ± 16.8136.7 ± 15.0137.5 ± 17.40.300
DBP (mmHg)76.0 ± 9.581.9 ± 11.2**80.8 ± 10.881.7 ± 9.983.3 ± 12.70.211
Antidiabetic treatment
  Lifestyle intervention alone, n (%)N2 (1.0)01 (1.5)1 (1.5)0.252
  Insulin treatments, n (%)N136 (68.0)43 (64.2)49 (73.1)44 (66.7)0.250
  Insulin-secretagogues, n (%)N87 (43.5)27 (40.3)32 (47.8)28 (42.4)0.290
  Insulin-sensitisers, n (%)N24 (12.0)6 (9.0)10 (14.9)8 (12.1)0.511
Hypertension, n (%)N89 (44.5)33 (49.3)27 (40.3)29 (43.9)0.047#
Statins, n (%)N17 (8.5)10 (14.9)3 (4.5)4 (6.1)0.711
NAFLD, n (%)N89 (44.5)35 (52.2)25 (37.3)29 (43.9)0.264
NFSN− 23.71 ± 2.65− 24.25 ± 2.61− 23.20 ± 2.69− 23.71 ± 2.590.264
FPG (mmol/L)4.63 ± 0.206.12 ± 1.72**6.04 ± 1.776.18 ± 1.826.13 ± 1.570.766
2hPG (mmol/L)9.24 ± 2.2816.78 ± 3.75**16.39 ± 3.9517.40 ± 3.2816.54 ± 3.980.833
HbA1c (%)N9.46 ± 2.299.41 ± 2.229.91 ± 2.549.01 ± 2.020.346
ISHOMA-cpN10.06 (2.72–8.65)9.91 (2.81–9.16)12.86 (2.72–10.15)7.33 (2.37–7.64)0.720
UA (μmol/L)N314.36 (250.0–377.0)323.76 (251.0–404.0)309.7 (248.3–357.5)309.5 (242.5–380.5)0.434
TC (mmol/L)4.31 ± 0.804.44 ± 0.824.42 ± 0.864.61 ± 0.864.29 ± 0.710.377
TG (mmol/L)1.22 (0.60–1.54)2.11 (1.32–2.67)**2.45 (1.58–3.07)2.12 (1.20–2.74)1.76 (1.18–2.17)0.001###
HDL-c (mmol/L)1.34 ± 0.171.12 ± 0.29**1.06 ± 0.261.13 ± 0.231.17 ± 0.350.025#
LDL-c (mmol/L)2.54 ± 0.562.82 ± 0.70*2.82 ± 0.702.96 ± 0.702.67 ± 0.670.198
LPa (mg/L)N186.5 (45.0–243.0)178.7 (35.0–264.0)171.7 (45.0–230.0)223.2 (49.0–245.0)0.445
InAIP− 0.13 ± 0.300.23 ± 0.25**0.33 ± 0.230.23 ± 0.270.15 ± 0.210.001###
baPWV (cm/s)N1879.8 ± 355.22029.6 ± 330.31870.0 ± 329.41737.7 ± 348.90.001###
  1. Categorical variables are frequency (percentage), normally distributed values in the table are mean ± SD and non-normally distributed values are median (25 and 75% interquartiles)
  2. FGF19 fibroblast growth factor 19, BMI body mass index, SBP/DBP systolic/diastolic blood pressure, NAFLD non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, FPG fasting plasma glucose, 2hPG 2-h postprandial blood glucose, HbA1c glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, ISHOMA-cp homeostasis model assessment for insulin sensitivity calculated using glucose and C-peptide in fasting status, UA uric acid, TC total cholesterol, TG triglyceride, HDL-c high density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-c low density lipoprotein cholesterol, LPa lipoprotein a, AIP atherogenic index of plasma, baPWV brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, NFS NAFLD fibrosis score
  3. p values for continuous variables and categorical variables were determined by ANOVA and the Chi squared test, respectively. # p < 0.05, ## p < 0.01, ### p < 0.001
  4. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, the comparison of T2D with Controls