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Table 2 clinical and biochemical characteristics by quartiles of circulating Nrg4 in all nT2DM patients

From: Changes of circulating neuregulin 4 and its relationship with 25-hydroxy vitamin D and other diabetic vascular complications in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy

Covariates Quartile 1 Quartile 2 Quartile 3 Quartile 4 P
Sample size 41 41 41 41
Nrg4 (ng/ml) 1.18 ± 0.31 2.14 ± 0.31** 3.26 ± 0.33**## 5.18 ± 1.08**##$$ 0.000
Men/women 24/17 20/21 15/26 19/22 0.263
Age (years) 65.46 ± 9.70 61.29 ± 7.96* 62.37 ± 8.92 66.44 ± 9.19$ 0.030
BMI (kg/m2) 26.55 ± 3.69 25.79 ± 3.95* 25.02 ± 3.90 24.72 ± 3.39* 0.119
SBP (mmHg) 123.51 ± 11.16 122.56 ± 11.50 124.83 ± 13.19 127.00 ± 10.98 0.351
DBP (mmHg) 72.07 ± 11.29 73.37 ± 9.32 75.73 ± 8.18 74.24 ± 7.05 0.333
FBG (mmol/L) 11.48 ± 3.73 11.79 ± 3.69 10.38 ± 2.83 10.44 ± 3.18 0.140
PBG (mmol/L) 18.82 ± 4.76 19.19 ± 5.92 18.91 ± 7.62 18.82 ± 5.26 0.774
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 84.98 ± 23.16 87.45 ± 20.99 85.63 ± 25.90 86.93 ± 27.21 0.966
HbA1c (%) 9.93 ± 2.12 10.15 ± 1.92 9.99 ± 2.37 10.10 ± 2.49 0.966
FIns (μU/ml) 10.05 ± 6.35 11.71 ± 6.29 10.26 ± 5.32 10.68 ± 6.56 0.624
HOMA-IR 4.76 ± 2.96 6.12 ± 3.85 4.65 ± 2.75 4.84 ± 3.44 0.145
TC (mmol/L) 4.42 ± 1.23 4.37 ± 1.33 4.36 ± 1.18 4.56 ± 1.40 0.893
TG (mmol/L) 2.30 ± 2.69 2.32 ± 1.53 1.55 ± 0.80 2.42 ± 2.21* 0.082
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.07 ± 0.31 1.10 ± 0.46 1.16 ± 0.32* 1.16 ± 0.36** 0.543
LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.67 ± 0.91 2.51 ± 0.92 2.74 ± 1.03 2.70 ± 1.08 0.731
UACR (mg/g) 39.46 ± 8.70 38.02 ± 6.49 38.07 ± 7.79 52.84 ± 9.54 0.123
Scr (μmol/L) 70.56 ± 21.03 69.83 ± 18.44 65.60 ± 16.44 72.42 ± 19.46 0.417
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 88.76 ± 22.44 89.84 ± 15.55 90.76 ± 16.95 83.89 ± 16.29 0.319
ABI 1.04 ± 0.07 1.05 ± 0.11 1.02 ± 0.15 1.01 ± 0.18 0.880
VPT (V) 27.15 ± 11.37 18.80 ± 10.06** 14.29 ± 5.77** 15.00 ± 6.78** 0.000
25(OH)D (ng/mL) 15.91 ± 5.35 14.11 ± 3.05** 15.76 ± 4.51 18.37 ± 6.15## 0.007
DPN, n (%) 28 (68.29) 19 (46.34) 16 (39.02)* 13 (31.71)** 0.006
VPT > 25 V, n(%) 28 (68.29) 10 (24.39) ** 3 (7.32**## 2 (4.88**##$$ 0.000
Abnormal pricking sensation, n (%) 34 (82.93) 22 (53.66) 25 (60.98) 22 (53.66) 0.250
Abnormal nylon monofilament, n (%) 8 (19.51) 12 (29.27) 11 (26.83) 11 (26.83) 0.808
Reflex abnormalities, n (%) 6 (14.63) 5 (12.20) 3 (7.32) 2 (4.88) 0.431
Two abnormal DPN screening, n (%) 20 (48.78) 16 (39.02) 15 (36.59) 12 (29.27) 0.340
Three or more abnormal DPN screening, n (%) 8 (19.51) 3 (7.32) 1 (2.44)** 1 (2.44)** 0.012
DN, n (%) 16 (39.02) 18 (43.90) 13 (31.71) 19 (46.34) 0.549
DR, n (%) 4 (9.76) 6 (14.63) 4 (9.76) 6 (14.63) 0.824
PAD, n (%) 3 (7.32) 1 (2.44) 4 (9.76) 4 (9.76) 0.543
  1. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 compared with quartile 1 group; # < 0.05, ##0.01 compared with quartile 2 group; $ < 0.05, $$0.01 compared with quartile 3 group