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Table 1 Circulating Nrg4 levels and other clinical characteristics between nt2dm patients with and without DPN (\( \overline{x} \) ± s)

From: Changes of circulating neuregulin 4 and its relationship with 25-hydroxy vitamin D and other diabetic vascular complications in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy

Variables No DPN DPN P
(n = 88) (n = 76)
Men/women 32/56 46/30 0.002
Age (years) 63.90 ± 8.44 63.88 ± 9.93 0.991
BMI (kg/m2) 25.02 ± 3.96 26.10 ± 3.47 0.067
SBP (mmHg) 123.45 ± 10.76 125.66 ± 12.78 0.232
DBP (mmHg) 73.68 ± 8.48 74.05 ± 9.84 0.796
FBG (mmol/L) 10.71 ± 3.30 11.38 ± 3.51 0.212
PBG (mmol/L) 18.51 ± 6.34 19.42 ± 5.43 0.329
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 86.84 ± 26.159 85.56 ± 21.95 0.736
HbA1c (%) 10.10 ± 2.39 9.98 ± 2.01 0.736
FIns (μU/ml) 11.23 ± 6.52 10.03 ± 5.60 0.183
HOMA-IR 5.20 ± 3.53 4.97 ± 3.03 0.654
TC (mmol/L) 4.27 ± 1.23 4.62 ± 1.32 0.193
TG (mmol/L) 2.12 ± 1.91 2.17 ± 2.02 0.403
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.12 ± 0.31 1.13 ± 0.42 0.970
LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.53 ± 1.00 2.80 ± 0.95 0.086
UACR (mg/g) 42.43 ± 49.29 41.71 ± 56.23 0.377
Scr (μmol/L) 68.93 ± 18.43 70.39 ± 19.53 0.622
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 87.06 ± 17.89 89.76 ± 18.23 0.342
VPT (V) 14.19 ± 5.47 24.16 ± 11.55 0.000
ABI 1.03 ± 0.12 1.03 ± 0.15 0.581
25(OH)D (ng/mL) 17.36 ± 5.57 14.51 ± 3.99 0.000
Nrg4 (ng/mL) 3.32 ± 1.62 2.49 ± 1.49 0.001
PAD (n,  %) 6 (6.81) 6 (7.89) 0.792
DN (n,  %) 37 (42.05) 29 (38.16) 0.613
DR (n,  %) 10 (11.36) 10 (13.16) 0.726
  1. Data are mean ± SD
  2. SD standard deviation, BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, FBG fasting blood glucose, PBG postprandial 2 h blood glucose, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin A1c, FIns fasting plasma insulin, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, TC total cholesterol, TG triglyceride, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, UACR urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, Scr serum creatinine, 25(OH)D 25-hydroxyvitamin D, Nrg4 Neuregulin 4, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, VPT vibration perceptionthreshold,DNdiabetic nephropathy, PAD peripheral arterial disease, DR diabetic retinopathy, DPN diabetic peripheral neuropathy