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Table 4 Adjusted changes in glycemic indices, lipid profiles and anthropometric indices in each group

From: The effect of omega-3 and vitamin D co-supplementation on glycemic control and lipid profiles in reproductive-aged women with pre-diabetes and hypovitaminosis D: a randomized controlled trial

Variables Group 1
Placebo group (n = 42)
Group 2
Omega 3 group (n = 42)
Group 3
Vitamin D group (n = 42)
Group 4
Vitamin + Omega 3 group (n = 42)
P value¥ ηp2¥
Time Time*
group
interaction
time Time*
group
interaction
Vitamin D − 4.49 (5.03) − 2.38 (5.28) 8.27 (7.77) 9.68 (7.34)# < .001* < .001* .15 .49
FBS (mg/dL) 2.60 (6.59) − 6.64 (5.14) − 3.56 (7.11) − 9.37 (6.4)ǁ < .001* < .001* .3 .33
Insulin (µIU/mL) 3.06 (3.69) − 1.80 (2.16) 1.92 (3.91) − 2.61 (1.68)ǁ .13 < .001* .002 .38
HOMA-IR 0.83 (1.05) − 0.58 (0.51) 0.40 (1.05) − 0.85 (0.48) .04* < .001* .004 .42
HOMA-B 0.28 (0.53) − 0.002 (0.42) 0.27 (0.4) − 0.04 (0.31)ǁ < .001* < .001* .08 .19
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 10.81 (54.27) − 15.48 (40.02) 3.27 (56.55) − 22.32 (34.58) < .001* < .001* .01 .07
Total-cholesterol (mg/dL) − 4.21 (22.71) − 14.29 (26.8) − 10.23 (29.89) − 22.74 (29.7) < .001* < .001* .18 .006
HDL-C (mg/dL) − 0.32 (3.74) 0.82 (5.35) 0.4 (5.15) 1.29 (5.68)ǁ < .001* .004* .01 .01
LDL-C (mg/dL) − 4.12 (20.58) − 11.53 (25.52) − 10.29 (26.40) − 19.04 (29.03) < .001* < .001* .16 .04
Weight 0.31 (1.03) − 0.06 (1.42) 0.06 (1.27) − 0.36 (1.65)ǁ .77 < .001* 0 .03
BMI − 0.002 (0.54) − 0.07 (0.81) − 0.036 (0.63) − 0.05 (0.68) .04 .63 .004 .002
Waist circumference − 0.01 (1.7) − 0.84 (1.77) − 0.43 (1.8) − 1.15 (2.23)ǁ < .001* < .001* .09 .05
  1. All values are means (SDs)
  2. *P value is significant
  3. ¥ Obtain from two way repeated measures ANOVA after adjusting for covariates
  4. # Significant difference with group 1 and 2
  5. ǁ Significant difference with and other 3 groups
  6. (¥, ǁ, #) Obtain from Two way repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferroni correction
  7. ηp2 (partial eta squared) = 0.14 or more are large effects, 0.06 to 0.14 are medium effects and Less than 0.6 are small effects