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Table 4 Adjusted changes in glycemic indices, lipid profiles and anthropometric indices in each group

From: The effect of omega-3 and vitamin D co-supplementation on glycemic control and lipid profiles in reproductive-aged women with pre-diabetes and hypovitaminosis D: a randomized controlled trial

VariablesGroup 1
Placebo group (n = 42)
Group 2
Omega 3 group (n = 42)
Group 3
Vitamin D group (n = 42)
Group 4
Vitamin + Omega 3 group (n = 42)
P value¥ηp2¥
TimeTime*
group
interaction
timeTime*
group
interaction
Vitamin D− 4.49 (5.03)− 2.38 (5.28)8.27 (7.77)9.68 (7.34)#< .001*< .001*.15.49
FBS (mg/dL)2.60 (6.59)− 6.64 (5.14)− 3.56 (7.11)− 9.37 (6.4)ǁ< .001*< .001*.3.33
Insulin (µIU/mL)3.06 (3.69)− 1.80 (2.16)1.92 (3.91)− 2.61 (1.68)ǁ.13< .001*.002.38
HOMA-IR0.83 (1.05)− 0.58 (0.51)0.40 (1.05)− 0.85 (0.48).04*< .001*.004.42
HOMA-B0.28 (0.53)− 0.002 (0.42)0.27 (0.4)− 0.04 (0.31)ǁ< .001*< .001*.08.19
Triglycerides (mg/dL)10.81 (54.27)− 15.48 (40.02)3.27 (56.55)− 22.32 (34.58)< .001*< .001*.01.07
Total-cholesterol (mg/dL)− 4.21 (22.71)− 14.29 (26.8)− 10.23 (29.89)− 22.74 (29.7)< .001*< .001*.18.006
HDL-C (mg/dL)− 0.32 (3.74)0.82 (5.35)0.4 (5.15)1.29 (5.68)ǁ< .001*.004*.01.01
LDL-C (mg/dL)− 4.12 (20.58)− 11.53 (25.52)− 10.29 (26.40)− 19.04 (29.03)< .001*< .001*.16.04
Weight0.31 (1.03)− 0.06 (1.42)0.06 (1.27)− 0.36 (1.65)ǁ.77< .001*0.03
BMI− 0.002 (0.54)− 0.07 (0.81)− 0.036 (0.63)− 0.05 (0.68).04.63.004.002
Waist circumference− 0.01 (1.7)− 0.84 (1.77)− 0.43 (1.8)− 1.15 (2.23)ǁ< .001*< .001*.09.05
  1. All values are means (SDs)
  2. *P value is significant
  3. ¥ Obtain from two way repeated measures ANOVA after adjusting for covariates
  4. # Significant difference with group 1 and 2
  5. ǁ Significant difference with and other 3 groups
  6. (¥, ǁ, #) Obtain from Two way repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferroni correction
  7. ηp2 (partial eta squared) = 0.14 or more are large effects, 0.06 to 0.14 are medium effects and Less than 0.6 are small effects