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Table 2 Comparison of glycemic indices and Vitamin D in each group before and after the intervention

From: The effect of omega-3 and vitamin D co-supplementation on glycemic control and lipid profiles in reproductive-aged women with pre-diabetes and hypovitaminosis D: a randomized controlled trial

VariablesTimeGroup 1
Placebo group (n = 42)
Group 2
Omega 3 group (n = 42)
Group 3
Vitamin D group (n = 42)
Group 4
Vitamin + Omega 3 group (n = 42)
Vitamin DBefore25.47 (5.83)23.56 (6.42)21.43 (8)22.03 (6.92)
After20.97 (6.63)21.17 (7.40)29.71 (12.11)31.71 (11.51)
P-value< .001*< .001*< .001*< .001*
FBS (mg/dL)Before104.52 (6.39)103.87 (5.88)103.74 (5.11)103.71 (4.73)
After107.12 (9.94)97.23 (5.87)100.18 (8.94)94.33 (8.02)
P-value< .001*< .001*< .001*< .001*
Insulin (µIU/mL)Before7.36 (4.12)9.14 (3.14)7.73 (3.66)10.35 (3.13)
After10.42 (4.89)7.34 (3.53)9.65 (4.08)7.73 (2.4)
P-value< .001*< .001*< .001*< .001*
HOMA-IRBefore1.91 (1.13)2.34 (0.82)1.98 (0.94)2.65 (0.83)
After2.75 (1.34)1.75 (0.78)2.38 (1.07)1.79 (0.6)
P-value< .001*< .001*< .001*< .001*
HOMA-BBefore0.64 (0.34)0.82 (0.56)0.69 (0.33)0.95 (0.42)
After0.92 (0.64)0.81 (0.29)0.96 (0.4)0.92 (0.28)
P-value< .001*.92< .001*0.04*
  1. FBS: Fasting blood sugar; HOMA-IR: Homeostasis Model Assessment estimated Insulin Resistance; HOMA-B: homeostatic model assessment for B-cell function-B
  2. All values are means (SDs)
  3. *P values is significant
  4. Obtain from paired samples t-test