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Table 2 Comparison of glycemic indices and Vitamin D in each group before and after the intervention

From: The effect of omega-3 and vitamin D co-supplementation on glycemic control and lipid profiles in reproductive-aged women with pre-diabetes and hypovitaminosis D: a randomized controlled trial

Variables Time Group 1
Placebo group (n = 42)
Group 2
Omega 3 group (n = 42)
Group 3
Vitamin D group (n = 42)
Group 4
Vitamin + Omega 3 group (n = 42)
Vitamin D Before 25.47 (5.83) 23.56 (6.42) 21.43 (8) 22.03 (6.92)
After 20.97 (6.63) 21.17 (7.40) 29.71 (12.11) 31.71 (11.51)
P-value < .001* < .001* < .001* < .001*
FBS (mg/dL) Before 104.52 (6.39) 103.87 (5.88) 103.74 (5.11) 103.71 (4.73)
After 107.12 (9.94) 97.23 (5.87) 100.18 (8.94) 94.33 (8.02)
P-value < .001* < .001* < .001* < .001*
Insulin (µIU/mL) Before 7.36 (4.12) 9.14 (3.14) 7.73 (3.66) 10.35 (3.13)
After 10.42 (4.89) 7.34 (3.53) 9.65 (4.08) 7.73 (2.4)
P-value < .001* < .001* < .001* < .001*
HOMA-IR Before 1.91 (1.13) 2.34 (0.82) 1.98 (0.94) 2.65 (0.83)
After 2.75 (1.34) 1.75 (0.78) 2.38 (1.07) 1.79 (0.6)
P-value < .001* < .001* < .001* < .001*
HOMA-B Before 0.64 (0.34) 0.82 (0.56) 0.69 (0.33) 0.95 (0.42)
After 0.92 (0.64) 0.81 (0.29) 0.96 (0.4) 0.92 (0.28)
P-value < .001* .92 < .001* 0.04*
  1. FBS: Fasting blood sugar; HOMA-IR: Homeostasis Model Assessment estimated Insulin Resistance; HOMA-B: homeostatic model assessment for B-cell function-B
  2. All values are means (SDs)
  3. *P values is significant
  4. Obtain from paired samples t-test