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Table 2 Comparison of glycemic indices and Vitamin D in each group before and after the intervention

From: The effect of omega-3 and vitamin D co-supplementation on glycemic control and lipid profiles in reproductive-aged women with pre-diabetes and hypovitaminosis D: a randomized controlled trial

Variables

Time

Group 1

Placebo group (n = 42)

Group 2

Omega 3 group (n = 42)

Group 3

Vitamin D group (n = 42)

Group 4

Vitamin + Omega 3 group (n = 42)

Vitamin D

Before

25.47 (5.83)

23.56 (6.42)

21.43 (8)

22.03 (6.92)

After

20.97 (6.63)

21.17 (7.40)

29.71 (12.11)

31.71 (11.51)

P-value

< .001*

< .001*

< .001*

< .001*

FBS (mg/dL)

Before

104.52 (6.39)

103.87 (5.88)

103.74 (5.11)

103.71 (4.73)

After

107.12 (9.94)

97.23 (5.87)

100.18 (8.94)

94.33 (8.02)

P-value

< .001*

< .001*

< .001*

< .001*

Insulin (µIU/mL)

Before

7.36 (4.12)

9.14 (3.14)

7.73 (3.66)

10.35 (3.13)

After

10.42 (4.89)

7.34 (3.53)

9.65 (4.08)

7.73 (2.4)

P-value

< .001*

< .001*

< .001*

< .001*

HOMA-IR

Before

1.91 (1.13)

2.34 (0.82)

1.98 (0.94)

2.65 (0.83)

After

2.75 (1.34)

1.75 (0.78)

2.38 (1.07)

1.79 (0.6)

P-value

< .001*

< .001*

< .001*

< .001*

HOMA-B

Before

0.64 (0.34)

0.82 (0.56)

0.69 (0.33)

0.95 (0.42)

After

0.92 (0.64)

0.81 (0.29)

0.96 (0.4)

0.92 (0.28)

P-value

< .001*

.92

< .001*

0.04*

  1. FBS: Fasting blood sugar; HOMA-IR: Homeostasis Model Assessment estimated Insulin Resistance; HOMA-B: homeostatic model assessment for B-cell function-B
  2. All values are means (SDs)
  3. *P values is significant
  4. Obtain from paired samples t-test