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Table 3 Multinomial logistic regression of the associations between vitamin A and E and A1C concentrations among 1st trimester pregnant Saudi women (n = 1102)

From: Plasma concentrations of vitamin A and E and risk of dysglycemia in first-trimester pregnant Saudi women

A1CaBSEaOR95% CI
Prediabetes
 Vitamin A (µg/L)
  Model 1− 0.0510.0060.950**0.94–0.96
  Model 2− 0.0510.0050.951**0.94–0.96
 Vitamin E (mg/L)
  Model 1− 0.1340.1350.263**0.20–0.34
  Model 2− 1.3020.1340.272**0.21–0.35
Undiagnosed diabetes
 Vitamin A (µg/L)
  Model 1− 0.0720.0060.930**0.92–0.94
  Model 2− 0.0710.0060.932**0.92–0.94
 Vitamin E (mg/L)
  Model 1− 1.7760.1540.169**0.13–0.23
  Model 2− 1.7150.1530.180**0.13–0.24
  1. Model 1: unadjusted; Model 2: adjusted for age
  2. A1C glycated hemoglobulin A1c, B beta, SE standard error, aOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  3. **p < 0.001
  4. a The reference category is normal A1C concentration