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Table 1 Characteristics of first trimester pregnant Saudi women according to the glycaemic statusa (n = 1102)

From: Plasma concentrations of vitamin A and E and risk of dysglycemia in first-trimester pregnant Saudi women

VariableNormoglycemic control (n = 868)Prediabetes (n = 211)Undiagnosed type-2 diabetes (n = 23)P values
Age27.9 ± 6.2527.9 ± 6.0730.2 ± 6.780.239
Education, n (%)
 Less than college degree635 (79.7%)146 (18.3%)16 (2.00%)0.491
 College degree or higher233 (76.4%)65 (21.3%) 
Pregestational BMI25.2 ± 5.4026.0 ± 5.3926.4 ± 6.210.061
A1C %4.97 ± 0.325.94 ± 0.197.03 ± 0.62<.0001
Vitamin E (mg/L)30.8 ± 3.8120.0 ± 2.7113.7 ± 5.93<.0001
Vitamin A (µg/L)703.5 ± 99.7420.9 ± 61.7280.00 ± 140.2<.0001
  1. All numbers are presented as mean ± standard deviation unless otherwise specified
  2. BMI body-mass-index, A1C glycated hemoglobulin A1c
  3. aKruskal–Wallis and Chi square tests were used