Skip to main content

Table 4 The associations of overall and abdominal adiposity with metabolic syndrome and its components

From: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its association with body fat distribution in middle-aged individuals from Indonesia and the Netherlands: a cross-sectional analysis of two population-based studies

BMIIndonesian (SD = 4.4 kg/m2)Dutch (SD = 4.4 kg/m2)
MenWomenMenWomen
Crude ORAdjusted ORCrude ORAdjusted ORCrude ORAdjusted ORCrude ORAdjusted OR
 Metabolic Syndrome3.0 (2.7, 3.4)1.5 (1.3, 1.8)2.3 (2.1, 2.5)1.4 (1.2, 1.6)5.0 (4.1, 6.2)1.7 (1.2, 2.5)3.4 (3.0, 3.8)1.0 (0.8, 1.3)
 Hypertension1.6 (1.4, 1.8)1.3 (1.1, 1.6)1.5 (1.4, 1.6)1.4 (1.2, 1.5)2.0 (1.7, 2.3)2.0 (1.4, 3.0)1.6 (1.4, 1.7)1.5 (1.2, 1.9)
 Hypertriglyceridemia1.7 (1.6, 1.9)1.3 (1.1, 1.5)1.4 (1.3, 1.5)1.3 (1.1, 1.4)2.3 (2.0, 2.6)1.4 (1.0, 1.9)1.9 (1.8, 2.1)0.9 (0.7, 1.1)
 Low HDL-C1.5 (1.3, 1.7)1.2 (1.1, 1.4)1.3 (1.3, 1.4)1.3 (1.1, 1.4)2.0 (1.7, 2.3)1.4 (1.0, 1.8)2.0 (1.8, 2.1)0.8 (0.7, 1.0)
 Hyperglycemia1.3 (1.2, 1.4)1.3 (1.1, 1.4)1.1 (1.1, 1.2)1.1 (1.0, 1.3)2.0 (1.8, 2.3)1.7 (1.2, 2.4)2.0 (1.8, 2.2)1.4 (1.1, 1.8)
Waist circumferenceIndonesian (SD = 11.6 cm)Dutch (SD = 13.4 cm)
MenWomenMenWomen
Crude ORAdjusted ORCrude ORAdjusted ORCrude ORAdjusted ORCrude ORAdjusted OR
 Metabolic syndrome3.1 (2.8, 3.5)2.3 (1.9, 2.7)2.8 (2.5, 3.1)2.3 (2.0, 2.7)4.9 (4.1, 5.8)2.9 (2.1, 4.1)4.6 (4.0, 5.2)4.2 (3.2, 5.4)
 Hypertension1.6 (1.4, 1.7)1.3 (1.1, 1.5)1.5 (1.4, 1.6)1.2 (1.1, 1.4)1.7 (1.5, 2.0)0.9 (0.6, 1.3)1.5 (1.4, 1.7)1.0 (0.8, 1.3)
 Hypertriglyceridemia1.7 (1.5, 1.8)1.3 (1.2, 1.5)1.5 (1.4, 1.6)1.2 (1.1, 1.4)2.2 (2.0, 2.5)1.4 (1.1, 2.0)2.3 (2.1, 2.6)2.3 (1.8, 3.0)
 Low HDL-C1.5 (1.4, 1.6)1.4 (1.2, 1.6)1.3 (1.2, 1.4)1.2 (1.1, 1.3)1.9 (1.7, 2.2)1.3 (1.0, 1.8)2.3 (2.1, 2.6)2.4 (1.9, 3.0)
 Hyperglycemia1.2 (1.1, 1.3)1.0 (0.9, 1.1)1.2 (1.1, 1.2)1.1 (1.0, 1.2)1.9 (1.6, 2.1)1.0 (0.7, 1.4)2.2 (2.0, 2.5)1.4 (1.0, 1.9)
  1. The Odds Ratios of Metabolic Syndrome and its components per 1 SD of BMI and waist circumference. Data were presented in OR (95% CI). Interpretation: 1 SD of waist circumference in Indonesian men is associated with 2.3× higher risk of metabolic syndrome after adjustment. Multivariate were adjusted for age, education, smoking behavior, physical activity, pre-existing CVD, Stroke, and Diabetes. In the Indonesian population: additionally adjusted for urban/rural, and socioeconomic status. In the Dutch population: additionally adjusted for alcohol consumption, menopausal status, and hormone use. BMI and waist circumference were mutually adjusted. See Fig. 2