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Table 2 Characteristics of the Indonesian and Dutch Cohorts (adult population aged 45–65)

From: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its association with body fat distribution in middle-aged individuals from Indonesia and the Netherlands: a cross-sectional analysis of two population-based studies

 Indonesian (n = 10,575)Dutch (n = 6602)
MenWomenMenWomen
n (%)39.4 (0.6)60.6 (0.6)43.8 (0.9)56.2 (0.9)
Age (years)53.7 ± 6.552.2 ± 5.856.0 ± 6.355.4 ± 5.8
High education (> 12 years of education) (%)6.9 (0.6)4.0 (0.4)47.9 (1.3)44.4 (1.3)
Smoking status: (%) current smoker63.6 (1.1)4.4 (0.5)18.3 (1.0)14.2 (0.9)
Physically active (%)74.8 (1.1)80.5 (0.8)67.7 (1.2)75.4 (1.1)
Alcohol intake (g/day)a16.2 (5.7, 28.1)7.6 (1.5, 14.8)
Menopausal status: (%) postmenopausal60.2 (1.2)
Urban (%)46.2 (1.1)51.8 (0.9)
Rural (%)53.8 (1.1)48.2 (0.9)
Socio-economic status: (%) highest20.4 (1.1)19.0 (1.0)
BMI (kg/m2)22.6 ± 3.924.4 ± 4.626.9 ± 3.925.9 ± 4.7
Waist circumference (cm)79.0 ± 11.181.8 ± 11.798.4 ± 11.487.3 ± 12.6
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)133.4 ± 22.3136.4 ± 23.4134.4 ± 16.1126.9 ± 16.9
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)82.9 ± 13.086.8 ± 12.884.8 ± 10.581.9 ± 9.9
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L)+6.0 ± 1.86.1 ± 2.15.7 ± 1.25.3 ± 0.8
2-h post-prandial glucose (mmol/L)8.0 ± 3.28.7 ± 3.2
Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.6 ± 1.11.4 ± 0.81.4 ± 1.01.1 ± 0.7
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.2 ± 0.31.4 ± 0.31.3 ± 0.41.7 ± 0.4
LDL Cholesterol (mmol/L)3.4 ± 0.93.6 ± 1.03.5 ± 1.03.5 ± 0.9
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.0 ± 1.15.3 ± 1.15.5 ± 1.15.8 ± 1.0
Total body fat (%)25.0 ± 6.136.9 ± 6.4
Fat mass (kg)22.6 ± 9.127.5 ± 9.9
Lean body mass (kg)65.4 ± 7.244.8 ± 4.3
Use of anti-hypertensive medication (%)4.4 (0.4)7.7 (0.5)24.2 (1.0)22.7 (1.0)
Use of oral anti-diabetic medication (%)2.9 (0.3)3.5 (0.4)2.4 (0.2)1.6 (0.2)
Use of insulin injection (%)0.4 (0.1)0.5 (0.2)0.4 (0.2)0.3 (0.1)
Use of lipid-lowering agents (%)14.9 (0.8)7.4 (0.6)
Pre-existing cardiovascular disease (%)1.1 (0.2)1.4 (0.2)7.5 (0.7)4.2 (0.5)
Pre-existing stroke (%)1.2 (0.2)1.4 (0.3)2.0 (0.4)2.1 (0.4)
Pre-existing diabetes (%)3.9 (0.4)4.6 (0.4)4.3 (0.4)3.1 (0.3)
Diabetes diagnosis—ADA criteria (fasting glucose)9.6 (0.6)11.3 (0.6)6.1 (0.5)3.2 (0.3)
  1. Data were presented in mean ± SD or % (SE). Results were based on analyses weighted towards geographical density across 33 provinces (in the Indonesian population) and towards a normal BMI distribution (in the Dutch population)
  2. aIndicating a not normal distribution; presented in median (25th, 75th percentiles)
  3. Waist circumference cut-off: ≥ 90 cm in Asian men and ≥ 80 cm in Asian women; ≥ 102 cm in European men and ≥ 88 cm in European women)
  4. BMI overweight cut-off: ≥ 23 kg/m2 in Asian and ≥ 25 kg/m2 in European population
  5. Impaired Fasting Glucose cut-off: ≥ 5.6 mmol/L
  6. ADA Criteria: Fasting Glucose ≥ 7 mmol/L or 2-h postprandial glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/L