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Table 4 Comparisons among DD levels, anxiety and depressive symptoms according to chronic complications (yes: n = 45; no: n = 25)—Anova

From: Relatively young T1D adults using fixed doses of insulin have higher diabetes distress levels in a sample of patients from a Brazilian tertiary hospital

VariableComplicationsMean ± SD/medianp-value
DDS
 Yes41.93 ± 20.29/38.000.5959
 No34.08 ± 19.34/29.00 
DDS-S1 
 Yes14.58 ± 8.21/12.000.7011
 No12.40 ± 8.99/9.00 
DDS-S2
 Yes6.87 ± 4.95/4.000.6223
 No5.32 ± 2.23/4.00 
DDS-S3
 Yes15.36 ± 7.63/15.000.8381
 No13.12 ± 8.03/10.00 
DDS-S4
 Yes6.22 ± 3.73/5.000.4695
 No5.84 ± 4.81/3.00 
HAD-A
 Yes8.00 ± 4.84/7.000.3559
 No7.52 ± 5.28/7.00 
HAD-D
 Yes7.38 ± 5.07/7.000.1989
 No5.60 ± 4.98/4.00 
  1. DDS total score (DDS: Diabetes Distress Scale); DDS-S1 score (S1: emotional burden); DDS-S2 score (S2: physician distress); DDS-S3 score (S3: regimen distress); DDS-S4 score (S4: interpersonal distress); HAD-A score: anxiety symptoms (HAD-A: anxiety subscale of Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale); HAD-D score: depressive symptoms (HAD-D: depression subscale of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). T1D chronic complications 0–3: retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy. Values expressed as mean, SD (standard deviation) and median