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Table 3 Comparisons among DD levels, anxiety and depressive symptoms according to regimen of insulin (IR 1: n = 26, IR 2: n = 29, IR 3: n = 15)—Anova

From: Relatively young T1D adults using fixed doses of insulin have higher diabetes distress levels in a sample of patients from a Brazilian tertiary hospital

VariableMean ± SD/medianp-value
DDS
 IR 146.31 ± 23.69/43.000.0392*
 IR 238.45 ± 18.01/33.00 
 IR 328.00 ± 11.21/25.00 
DDS-S1 
 IR 116.58 ± 8.74/15.000.0383*
 IR 213.52 ± 8.62/10.00 
 IR 39.53 ± 6.08/8.00 
DDS-S2
 IR 16.92 ± 5.02/4.500.4587
 IR 26.10 ± 3.78/4.00 
 IR 35.67 ± 3.66/4.00 
DDS-S3
 IR 118.15 ± 8.07/17.500.0043**
 IR 213.79 ± 7.08/15.00 
 IR 39.80 ± 5.73/8.00 
DDS-S4  
 IR 17.31 ± 4.97/5.500.4053
 IR 25.24 ± 3.58/3.00 
 IR 35.69 ± 3.07/4.00 
HAD-A
 IR 18.23 ± 5.84/6.000.5052
 IR 27.48 ± 4.70/7.00 
 IR 37.80 ± 4.02/7.00 
HAD-D
 IR 17.23 ± 5.29/6.000.7756
 IR 26.90 ± 5.21/7.00 
 IR 35.60 ± 4.58/5.00 
  1. IR 1—patients using fixed doses of insulin (basal/bolus), IR 2—patients using fixed doses of insulin (basal/bolus) plus pre-prandial correction of glycemia, IR 3—patients using variable doses of insulin (basal/bolus), according to carbohydrates counting plus pre-prandial correction of glycemia. * IR 1 DD > IR 3 DD; ** IR 1 DD and IR 2 DD > IR 3DD. DDS: Diabetes Distress Scale-total score; DDS-S1: emotional burden; DDS-S2: physician distress; DDS-S3: regimen distress; DDS-S4: interpersonal distress; HAD-A: anxiety symptoms (anxiety subscale of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale); HAD-D: depressive symptoms (depression subscale of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Values expressed as mean, SD (standard deviation), and median