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Table 3 Comparison of biochemical measures between the study groups at baseline and at the end of the intervention

From: Effect of synbiotic bread containing lactic acid on glycemic indicators, biomarkers of antioxidant status and inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial

VariableStudy groupsBaselineEnd-of-trialChangeP-valueaP-valuebP-valuec
FPG
(mg/dL)
I: Control bread122.56 ± 5.87120.88 ± 4.47− 1.68 ± 6.430.610.540.6
II: Lactic acid bread127.48 ± 4.95115.16 ± 3.81− 12.32 ± 6.29
III: Synbiotic bread126.84 ± 6.08120.80  ± 4.43− 6.04 ± 8.41
IV: Synbiotic+ lactic acid bread129.68 ± 4.88115.60  ± 3.55− 14.08 ± 5.56
HbA1c
(%)
I: Control bread6.98 ± 0.146.99 ± 0.140.004 ± 0.020.005*<0.001**<0.001***
II: Lactic acid bread6.84 ± 0.136.69 ± 0.11− 0.14 ± 0.05
III: Synbiotic bread6.78 ± 0.116.50 ± 0.08− 0.28  ± 0.06
IV: Synbiotic + lactic acid bread6.84 ± 0.126.43 ± 0.11− 0.41 ± 0.06
HOMA-IRI: Control bread2.12 ± 0.271.81 ± 0.24− 0.30  ± 0.120.310.110.09
II: Lactic acid bread2.12 ± 0.252.27 ± 0.220.14 ± 0.10
III: Synbiotic bread2.32 ± 0.242.35 ± 0.220.03 ± 0.07
IV: Synbiotic + lactic acid bread2.20 ± 0.212.23 ± 0.210.03 ± 0.09
Insulin
(µU/mL)
I: Control bread8.18 ± 0.956.68 ± 0.81− 1.51 ± 0.310.960.910.96
II: Lactic acid bread7.60 ± 0.736.31 ± 0.62− 1.28 ± 0.39
III: Synbiotic bread8.25 ± 0.956.19 ± 0.83− 2.05 ± 1.03
IV: Synbiotic + lactic acid bread7.73 ± 0.736.23 ± 0.65− 1.50 ± 1.08
TAC
(mmol/L)
I: Control bread0.38 ± 0.010.37 ± 0.01− 0.01 ± 0.010.270.110.26
II: Lactic acid bread0.37 ± 0.010.35 ± 0.010.02 ± 0.02
III: Synbiotic bread0.38 ± 0.010.38 ± 0.007− 0.007 ± 0.01
IV: Synbiotic+ lactic acid bread0.35 ± 0.010.38 ± 0.010.03 ± 0.01
SOD
(mmol/L)
I: Control bread12.41 ± 0.4312.23 ± 0.400.18 ± 0.17<0.0010.001‡‡<0.001‡‡‡
II: Lactic acid bread17.75 ± 0.3517.21 ± 0.48− 0.54 ± 0.40
III: Synbiotic bread22.09 ± 0.7122.49 ± 0.670.40 ± 0.13
IV: Synbiotic+ lactic acid bread18.87 ± 0.9219.74 ± 0.910.87 ± 0.22
GSH-Px (µmol/L)I: Control bread44.37 (26.62, 66.56)44.9 (26.90, 66.80)0.47 – (0.91, 2.89)0.30d0.48d0.04
II: Lactic acid bread70.88 (39.93, 173)51 (36.25, 118.5)1.23 (− 29.55, 7.10)
III: Synbiotic bread115.38 (31.06, 244)123 (31.06, 245.5)0.85 (0.000, 1.54)
IV: Synbiotic+ lactic acid bread54.38 (31.06, 186)72 (38.25, 209)1.19 (0.40, 2.86)
hs-CRP (mg/L)I: Control bread699 (391, 2499)580 (395, 1063)519.35 ± 304.350.70.480.02††
II: Lactic acid bread926 (501, 1782)749 (522, 1573)33.80 ± 237.60
III: Synbiotic bread840 (528, 1341)687 (454, 960)− 689.76 ± 368.98
IV: Synbiotic+ lactic acid bread926 (488, 1887)750 (487, 1063)− 575.96 ± 268.60
  1. Values are presented as mean ± SEM or median (Q1, Q3)
  2. FPG fasting plasma glucose, HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, TAC total antioxidant capacity, GSH-Px glutathion peroxidas, hs-CRP high sensitivity C-reactive protein
  3. aP-values represent the differences between the study groups after 8 weeks of intervention obtained from One-way ANOVA or KruskalWalis test
  4. bP-values represent the changes in metabolic parameters between the study groups obtained from One-way ANOVA Kruskal–Walis test
  5. cP-value represent the changes in metabolic parameters between the study groups obtained from ANCOVA adjusted based on age, weight, BMI and baseline values of variables
  6. dP-values obtained from Kruskal–Walis test
  7. * Significant differences between groups I and IV (P = 0.006) and Groups I and III (P = 0.02)
  8. ** Groups I and III (P = 0.002), I and IV (P < 0.001), and II and IV (P = 0.004)
  9. *** Groups I and III (P < 0.001); I and IV (P < 0.001), and II and IV (P = 0.001)
  10. Significant differences between Groups I and II (P < 0.001), I and III (P < 0.001), and I and IV(P < 0.001)
  11. ‡‡Groups I and IV (P = 0.02) and II and IV (P = 0.01)
  12. ‡‡‡Groups I and IV (P = 0.005), II and III (P = 0.01), and II and IV (P = 0.001)
  13. Significant difference between Groups II and IV (P = 0.03)
  14. ††Significant difference between Groups II and III (P = 0.02)