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Table 2 Dietary intake of study participants after 8 weeks of intervention

From: Effect of synbiotic bread containing lactic acid on glycemic indicators, biomarkers of antioxidant status and inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial

VariableStudy groupsBaselineEnd-of-trialP-valuea
Energy (kcal/day)I: Control bread2203.21 ± 81.022192.00 ± 70.790.87
II: Lactic acid bread2094.62 ± 58.682130.44 ± 59.14
III: Synbiotic bread2212.38 ± 81.172138.17 ± 56.97
IV: Synbiotic + lactic acid bread2085.71± 57.792130.28 ± 58.66
Carbohydrate
(g/day)
I: Control bread313.44 ± 8.61311.08 ± 8.550.22
II: Lactic acid bread295.04 ± 8.91295.72 ± 7.00
III: Synbiotic bread313.44 ± 8.61311.68 ± 8.44
IV: Synbiotic + lactic acid bread295.04 ± 8.91293.44 ± 7.88
Protein
(g/day)
I: Control bread70.64 ± 6.5069.84 ± 5.620.14
II: Lactic acid bread59.60 ± 3.7357.00 ± 3.13
III: Synbiotic bread70.64 ± 6.5069.48 ± 5.63
IV: Synbiotic + lactic acid bread59.60 ± 3.7360.52 ± 4.26
Total fat
(g/day)
I: Control bread81.84 ± 3.3680.48 ± 2.840.84
II: Lactic acid bread79.72 ± 2.0978.28 ± 2.41
III: Synbiotic bread82.16 ± 3.1979.44 ± 2.62
IV: Synbiotic + lactic acid bread79.70 ± 2.0977.23 ± 13.79
SFA
(g/day)
I: Control bread22.47 ± 1.3020.62 ± 0.950.24
II: Lactic acid bread18.99 ± 0.5519.75 ± 0.93
III: Synbiotic bread22.47 ± 1.3022.84 ± 1.22
IV: Synbiotic + lactic acid bread18.99 ± 0.5521.26 ± 1.21
TDF
(g/day)
I: Control bread14.27 ± 0.5314.58 ± 0.470.75
II: Lactic acid bread15.14 ± 0.6714.60 ± 0.75
III: Synbiotic bread13.32 ± 0.6014.19 ± 0.49
IV: Synbiotic + lactic acid bread15.10 ± 0.6315.06 ± 0.50
Vitamin D (μg/day)I: Control bread5.07± 0.125.02 ±0.110.44
II: Lactic acid bread4.75 ± 0.144.95 ± 0.14
III: Synbiotic bread5.07 ± 0.124.79 ± 0.14
IV: Synbiotic + lactic acid bread4.75 ± 0.144.76 ± 0.12
Vitamin C
(mg/day)
I: Control bread17.28 ± 0.7216.61 ± 0.610.85
II: Lactic acid bread16.88 ± 0.5916.97 ± 0.58
III: Synbiotic bread17.28 ± 0.7217.15 ± 0.69
IV: Synbiotic + lactic acid bread16.88 ± 0.5917.36 ± 0.55
Zinc
(mg/day)
I: Control bread7.38 ± 0.217.16 ± 0.210.18
II: Lactic acid bread5.72 ± 0.206.52 ± 0.27
III: Synbiotic bread7.38 ± 0.216.84 ± 0.21
IV: Synbiotic + lactic acid bread5.72 ± 0.206.58 ± 0.20
  1. All values are mean ± SEM
  2. SFA saturated fatty acid, TDF total dietary fiber
  3. aObtained from One-way ANOVA