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Table 1 Characteristics of the articles on gestational diabetes in obese and overweight women

From: The effect of exercise on the prevention of gestational diabetes in obese and overweight pregnant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Participants Study characteristic Out comes
Author, year, Country Group No. Mean age BMI Participant Ges.Age History Typ *D.M-GDM Setting Intervention Neonate GDM N (%) OR (CI 95%)
P-value
Kirsti Krohn Garnæs (2016) Norway [27] Int: 46
Con: 45
31.3 ± 3.8
31.4 ± 4.7
33.9 ± 3.8
35.1 ± 4.6
NP* and MP* Baseline 12–18 weeks
Late pregnancy 34–37
Clinical trial (RCT) Based on the IADPSG Trondheim University Hospital The exercise group was offered thrice weekly supervised sessions of 35 min of moderate intensity endurance exercise and 25 min of strength training Women received Standard Care Controls 2 (6.1)
9 (27.3)
0.1 (0.02–0.95)
0.04
Ruben Barakat (2013) Spain [28] Int: 255
Cont:255
31 ± 3
31 ± 4
24.1 ± 4.1
23.7 ± 3.8
NP and MP 10–12 weeks RCT WHO criteria and IADPSG Centro de Los Pedroches and Centro de Salud Leganés Norte, Leganés, Madrid Moderate-intensity resistance and aerobic exercises (three times/week, 50–55 min/session)
Women in control group received the routine care
Apgar score 1 min
Apgar score 5 min
Birth weight (g)
Gestational age (days)
Cesarean delivery (n, %)
41 (19.5)
61 (28)
29 (13.8)
32 (14.7)
0.98 (0.40–0.62)
0.040
Based on WHO criteria
0.797
IADPSG criteria
Niamh Daly (2017) Ireland [29] Int:44
Cont:44
30.0 ± 5.1
29.4 ± 8.4
34.7 ± 4.6
34.7 ± 5.1
NP less Than 17 weeks RCT Based on the IADPSG Coombe Women and Infants
University Hospital, Dublin
50–60 min of exercise: warm-up, resistance or weights, aerobic exercises, and cool-down. All women received routine prenatal care Birth weight (g)
Gestation at birth (week)
Gestation at birth (week)
Apgar scores
25 (58.8)
21 (48.8)
P = 0.51
Oostdam (2012) Netherlands [30] Int: 59
Cont: 62
30.8 ± 5.2
30.1 ± 5.4
33 ± 3.7
33.9 ± 5.6
NP and MP After 20 weeks History of macrosomia OR history of GDM; OR first-grade relative with T2D RCT Based on the IADPSG VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam The intervention group twice weekly exercises for 60 min
Training consisted of aerobic and strength exercises
Gestational age
Birthweight, g
Caesarean section, % (n)
GDM, % (n)
7 (14.6)
11 (21.6)
0.27 (1.55–0.65)
0.37
Chen Wang (2016) China [32] Int: 133
Cont: 132
32.14 ± 4.57
32.50 ± 4.91
26.82 ± 2.76
26.75 ± 2.75
NP and MP < 12 + 6 weeks RCT Based on the IADPSG Peking University first hospital The women in the intervention group performed exercises for 50 min three times a week and in a hospital under the supervision of one of the researchers until the end of the week of 37 weeks of pregnancy Gestational age, Apgar score, birthweight, Apgar score 29 (22)
54 (40.6)
0.412 (0.240–0.705)
0.001
David Simmons (2016) New Zealand, UK, Austria, Poland, Italy, Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands Australia [34] 439
Healthy eating N: 113
Physical activity N: 110
HE&PA: 108
Usual care: 105
Age total: 32.0 ± 5.4 33.7 ± 4.0 NP and MP < 20 weeks History of GDM The DALI Lifestyle Study
RCT
Based on the IADPSG Antenatal clinics a cross 11 centers in 9 European counteries Interventions start from 20 weeks and up and continue until the 35th week. Both aerobic and resistance physical activity (frequency, intensity, time, type) based on ACOG Birth weight, gestational age 99 (21.9)
100 (19)
1.21 (0.55–2.67)
0.05 > P
Seneviratn (2016) New Zealand [33] Int: 37
Cont: 38
32.4 ± 4.6
34.5 ± 6.2
NP and MP From 20 weeks RCT Home-based intervention in Auckland In this study, individuals in the intervention group performed moderate-intensity home-based exercise programs from week 20 to 35 in moderate intensity three to five times a week, and each time for 15 to 15 min using a steady-state magnetic bicycle Gestational age (days)
Birth weight (g)
Occipito-frontal circumference (cm)
Ponderal index (g/cm3)
BMI at birth (kg/m2)
Placental weight (g)
Apgar score
Hypoglycaemia
Respiratory distress
4 (11)
2 (5)
2.1 (0.3–12.8)
P = 0.432
Leonie, Callawa, Fracp Australia [31] Int: 25
Cont: 25
NP and MP 12 weeks’ gestation and followed to delivery Pilot randomized controlled trial Australasian Diabetes in Pregnancy Society criteria were used for the diagnosis and management of GDM Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital  Exercise for the intervention group with the goal of energy consumption up to 900 kcal/week 3 (12)
5 (23)
0 (0)
3 (16)
0.07 12 weeks
0.57 28 weeks
0.07 12 weeks
0.57 28 weeks
  1. D.M-GDM*: diagnostic method for GDM; NP*: Nulipara; MP*: multipara