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Table 3 Differences in frequency of consumption of individual foods between BMI groups

From: Association between pre-pregnancy body weight and dietary pattern with large-for-gestational-age infants in gestational diabetes

  Pre-conceptionally Pregnancy
Normal weight Overweight an obese U p Total Normal weight Overweight and obese U p Total
Median rs with BMI Median rs with BMI Median rs with BMI Median rs with GWG Median rs with GWG Median rs with GWG
Vegetables 6.0 0.164 6.0 0.069 265.0 0.365 6.0 − 0.008 6.5 − 0.019 7.0 0.050 159.5 0.770 7.0 − 0.056
Fruits 7.0 − 0.034 5.0 0.204 116.5 0.000 6.5  0.405* 7.0 0.186 6.0 − 0.261 98.0 0.407 7.0 0.178
Beef 2.5 − 0.206 3.0 − 0.164 407.0 0.029 3.0 0.111 3.0 0.034 3.0 0.291 182.0 0.331 3.0 0.025
Pork 2.0 0.381* 2.0 − 0.347 325.5 0.392 2.0 0.242 2.0 0.097 3.0 − 0.112 204.0 0.095 2.0 − 0.027
Chicken meat 3.0 − 0.153 3.0 0.188 281.5 0.638 3.0 − 0.109 3.0 0.025 3.5 − 0.173 162.5 0.701 3.0 − 0.023
Processed meat products 3.0 − 0.145 2.5 − 0.048 311.5 0.992 3.0 − 0.074 2.0 0.062 2.0 0.130 180.5 0.346 2.0 − 0.028
Eggs 3.0 − 0.191 2.5 − 0.020 189.5 0.017 3.0  0.341* 3.0 0.127 3.0 0.290 109.5 0.209 3.0 0.248
Milk 4.0 − 0.026 6.0 0.368 407.0 0.046 4.5 0.217 6.0 − 0.299 4.0 0.494 121.0 0.379 5.5 − 0.078
Cheese, cottage cheese 4.0 − 0.127 3.0 − 0.292 148.0 0.003 4.0  0.277* 5.0 − 0.255 4.0 − 0.222 87.5 0.414 4.0 − 0.161
Salty snacks 2.0  0.402* 2.5  0.530* 332.5 0.691 2.0 − 0.208 1.5 0.369* 2.0 0.260 156.0 0.866 2.0 0.325*
Sweets 3.0 − 0.100 2.5 0.012 248.0 0.225 3.0 − 0.175 2.0 0.176 2.0 0.092 151.0 1.00 2.0 0.135
Bread 6.0 − 0.190 6.0 0.508 342.5 0.315 6.0 0.044 6.0 0.096 5.5 0.000 96.0 0.479 6.0 0.176
Pasta 4.0  0.364* 3.5 0.143 300.5 0.823 4.0 − 0.192 4.0 − 0.107 3.0 − 0.518 102.0 0.140 4.0 0.019
Potato 4.0 − 0.197 4.0 − 0.051 326.5 0.770 4.0 − 0.074 4.0 0.085 3.0 − 0.632 94.0 0.105 4.0 0.162
Juice 2.0 − 0.190 1.5 − 0.024 298.0 0.788 2.0 − 0.123 1.0 0.074 1.0 0.060 160.0 0.770 1.0 − 0.003
Smoothie 3.0 − 0.045 2.0 0.171 258.5 0.308 2.0 − 0.120 2.0 0.194 1.0 0.413 130.0 0.505 2.0 0.241
Fish 3.0 0.047 2.0 − 0.190 262.5 0.299 2.0 − 0.107 3.0 − 0.065 3.0 0.082 167.0 0.225 3.0 − 0.068
Sour milk/kefir 2.0 − 0.179 2.0 0.027 244.5 0.194 2.0 − 0.227 3.0 − 0.367 2.0 0.009 138.5 0.714 2.5 − 0.227
Low calorie beverages 1.0 − 0.038 1.5 − 0.402 397.0 0.049 1.0 0.167 1.0 0.034 1.0   120.0 0.363 1.0 0.118
  1. Italics text indicates statistically significant correlation or difference between groups
  2. GWG: gestational weight gain; rs with BMI: Spearman correlation with BMI; rs with GWG: Spearman correlation with weight gain
  3. *p < 0.05 level