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Table 1 Demographic, anthropometric, clinical, and metabolic parameters of the pediatric population

From: Myokine–adipokine cross-talk: potential mechanisms for the association between plasma irisin and adipokines and cardiometabolic risk factors in Mexican children with obesity and the metabolic syndrome

Parameter NW (n = 46) Ob (n = 40) MS (n = 40)
Male (%) 21 (45.7) 20 (50) 20 (50)
Female (%) 25 (54.3) 20 (50) 20 (50)
Age (years) 8.7 ± 1.7 8.7 ± 1.5 9.1 ± 1.9
BMI 15.45 [14.8–16.3](B, C) 24.3[23.3–26.5](A) 26.75[24.1–29.8](A)
BMI% 30.0 [25.0–50.0](B, C) 98.6 [97.3–99.0](A) 98.9 [97.8–99.4](A)
BMI z-score − 0.39[(− 0.6) to (− 0.1)](B,C) 2.93 [2.6–3.4](A) 3.06 [2.7–3.6](A)
WC% 25.0 [13.8–50.0](B, C) 92.0 [87.0–98.0](A) 97.0 [91.3–99.8](A)
Muscle mass (kg) 6.43 [5.4–7.9](C) 6.56 [5.8–7.5](C) 7.58 [6.5–9.0](A, B)
Fat-free mass (kg) 23.05 [20.3–26.8](B, C) 27.22 [23.9–31.4](A) 29.06 [24.4–32.8](A)
Fat % 14.77 ± 3.4(B, C) 33.08 ± 5.7(A, C) 38.46 ± 9.4(A, B)
Fat mass (kg) 4.17 ± 1.7(B, C) 13.95 ± 4.5(A) 19.21 ± 9.1(A)
Lean-fat ratio 1.68 [1.25–2.01](B,C) 0.433 [0.380–0.627](A) 0.447 [0.345–0.610](A)
Physical activity (days per week) 1.5 [0–5] 1 [0–5] 1[0–3]
Physical activity (hours per day) 1 [0–1] 1 [0–1] 1 [0–1]
Physical activity (hours per week) 1 [0–15] 1 [0–10] 1 [0–10]
SBP% * 68.5 [50.5–80.0] 76.5 [58.3–91.0]
DBP% * 39.5 [29.3–49.8]** 53.5 [41.5–69.8]**
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 77.4 ± 11.7(C) 80.4 ± 10.7 84.2 ± 11.0(A)
TG (mg/dL) 81.2 [66.8–93.2](B, C) 95.5 [78.5–122.0](A, C) 170.0 [129.0–224.0](A, B)
HDL-c (mg/dL) 45.5 [42.5–47.3](B, C) 41.0 [35.5–47.0](A, C) 33.5 [31.0–36.0](A, B)
Irisin (ng/mL) 8.05 [7.24–8.94](B, C) 6.08 [4.68–6.65](A) 6.46 [5.74–7.02](A)
Leptin (pg/mL) 0.32 [0.18–0.66](B, C) 0.86 [0.303–2.34](A) 1.32 [0.42–6.27](A)
Adiponectin (pg/mL) 10.3 [4.86–14.2] 14.9 [7.06–24.9] 14.2 [6.88–22.6]
Resistin (pg/mL) 0.0 [0.0–0.0](B, C) 1.75 [1.03–4.88](A) 2.45 [1.32–7.57](A)
Adipsin (pg/mL) 0.64 [0.38–0.80](B, C) 0.90 [0.64–1.57](A) 1.20 [0.79–1.56](A)
  1. Data is expressed as median and interquartile range for variables with non-parametric distribution and mean and standard deviation for variables with parametric distribution, unless specified otherwise
  2. Percentiles of anthropometric variables were calculated according to age and gender
  3. BMI%, body mass index percentile for age and gender; DBP%, diastolic blood pressure percentile for age, gender, and height; HDL-c, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; MS, metabolic syndrome; NW, normal weight; Ob, obese; SBP%, systolic blood pressure percentile for age, gender, and height; TG, triglycerides; WC%, waist circumference percentile for age and gender
  4. * BP measurements for the control group were not obtained
  5. ** Indicates p < 0.05 using the Mann–Whitney test
  6. p < 0.05 versus (A)Normal Weight (B)Obese (C)Metabolic Syndrome