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Table 4 Meta-regression results for effect of different metformin therapy strategy among subgroup of POCS women and healthy controls and study methodology

From: Metformin therapy before conception versus throughout the pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systemic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression

  Regression coefficient (95% CI) P value
Comparison between PCOS and healthy controls
 Women with PCOS, No treated with metformin vs. healthy controls
  Non-RCTs~ 0.10 (0.02, 0.17) 0.006
  RCTs –*
 Women with PCOS, treated with metformin only before conception vs. healthy controls
  Non-RCTs 0.14 (0.07, 0.2) 0.000
  RCTs –*
 Women with PCOS, treated with metformin before conception till the end of pregnancy vs. healthy controls
  Non-RCTs 0.035 (− 0.03, 0.1) 0.324
  RCTs –* –*
Comparison between PCOS population
 Women with PCOS, treated with metformin only before conception vs. without metformin therapy
  Non-RCTs 0.08 (− 0.03, 0.2) 0.390
  RCTs –*
 Women with PCOS, treated with metformin before conception till the end of pregnancy vs. without metformin therapy
  Non-RCTs − 0.05 (− 0.07, 0.04) 0.602
  RCTs –*
 Women with PCOS, treated with metformin before conception till the end of pregnancy vs. only before conception
  Non-RCTs − 0.11 (− 0.24, 0.02) 0.097
  RCTs − 0.03 (− 0.25, 0.20) 0.757
  1. * Insufficient data for analysis
  2. ~ Randomized clinical trial