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Table 3 Meta-regression results for univariate and multiple (adjusted effect) models assessing the effect of PCOS on gestational diabetes in different trimester of pregnancy

From: Metformin therapy before conception versus throughout the pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systemic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression

  Trimester 1 (n = 6) Trimester 2 (n = 82) Trimester 3 (n = 8)
β (95% CI for β) P value β (95% CI for β) P value β (95% CI for β) P value
Unadjusted model 1
 Effect PCOS a   0.097 (0.04, 0.16) 0.002 0.09 (− 0.08, 0.26) 0.234
Adjusted Models
 Model 2
  Effect of BMI 0.016 (− 0.05, 0.09) 0.522 − 0.007 (− 0.02, 0.002) 0.127 0.03 (− 0.03, 0.09) 0.359
  Effect of PCOS a   0.10 (0.05, 0.2) 0.001 − 0.02 (− 0.4, 0.3) 0.887
 Model 3
  Effect of BMI 0.017 (− 0.056, 0.09) 0.522 − 0.005 (− 0.02, 0.004) 0.242 0.03 (− 0.06, 0.1) 0.413
  Effect of PCOS a   0.10 (0.04, 0.2) 0.002 − 0.02 (− 0.5, 0.5) 0.887
  Effect of age − 0.04 (− 0.29, 0.21) 0.650 − 0.003 (− 0.02, 0.01) 0.621 0.01 (− 0.2, 0.1) 0.413
 Model 4
  Effect of BMI 0.022 (− 0.11, 0.16) 0.548 − 0.005 (− 0.02, 0.006) 0.344 0.03 (− 0.09, 0.2) 0.450
  Effect of PCOS a   0.08 (0.04, 0.2) 0.624 − 0.04 (− 0.7, 0.6) 0.852
  Effect of age − 0.072 (− 0.65, 0.50) 0.647 − 0.003 (− 0.02, 0.01) 0.624 − 0.02 (− 0.4, 0.3) 0.862
  Effect of metformin therapy − 0.023 (− 0.38, 0.33) 0.803 − 0.0001 (− 0.05, 0.05) 0.997 − 0.05 (− 0.4, 0.3) 0.680
 Model 5
  Effect of BMI 0.005 (− 0.1, 0.1) 0.854 − 0.004 (− 0.01, 0.01) 0.425 0.03 (− 0.03, 0.08) 0.253
  Effect of PCOS a   0.10 (0.05, 0.2) 0.001 − 0.01 (− 0.2, 2) 0.840
  Effect of age 0.04 (− 0.4, 0.5) 0.740 − 0.001 (− 0.01, 0.01) 0.771 − 0.1 (− 0.3, 0.06) 0.134
  Effect of study design − 0.04 (− 0.2, 0.1) 0.396 0.05 (0.02, 0.08) 0.004 0.1 (− 0.02, 0.2) 0.073
 Model 6
  Effect of BMI 0.04 (− 0.1, 0.2) 0.334 − 0.005 (− 0.02, 0.004) 0.259 0.02 (− 0.07, 0.1) 0.403
  Effect of PCOS a   0.10 (0.02, 0.2) 0.011 a  
  Effect of age − 0.1 (− 0.6, 0.3) 0.380 − 0.004 (− 0.02, 0.01) 0.519 − 0.10 (− 0.1, 0.2) 0.761
  Effect of PCOS definition 0.2 (− 0.5, 0.8) 0.396 − 0.04 (− 0.1, 0.03) 0.267 0.4 (− 0.29, 0.99) 0.144
 Model 7
  Effect of BMI 0.02 (− 0.05, 0.09) 0.522 − 0.005 (− 0.02, 0.004) 0.256 0.02 (− 0.1, 0.2) 0.649
  Effect of PCOS a   0.10 (0.05, 0.2) 0.001 0.02 (− 0.9, 0.9) 0.953
  Effect of age − 0.04 (− 0.3, 0.2) 0.634 − 0.002 (− 0.02, 0.01) 0.711 0.03 (− 0.3, 0.4) 0.792
  Effect of quality assessment a   0.02 (− 0.05, 0.08) 0.612 − 0.06 (− 0.7, 0.6) 0.775
 Model 8
  Effect of BMI − 0.005 (− 0.12, 0.111) 0.880 − 0.006 (− 0.02, 0.004) 0.236 0.06 (− 0.1, 0.2) 0.306
  Effect of PCOS a   0.1 (0.04, 0.2) 0.002 − 0.2 (− 0.9, 0.6) 0.565
  Effect of age − 0.06 (− 0.4, 0.3) 0.513 − 0.003 (− 0.02, 0.01) 0.680 − 0.02 (− 0.3, 0.2) 0.857
  Effect of GDM definition 0.2 (− 0.4, 0.7) 0.352 0.01 (− 0.04, 0.06) 0.608 − 0.1 (− 0.5, 0.3) 0.459
  1. Italic values indicate statistically significant results (p < 0.05)
  2. aInsufficient data for analysis
  3. Model 1: Univariate models assessing the effect of PCOS on Prevalence of GDM (Crude model)
  4. Model 2: Multiple meta-regresion analysis effect of PCOS on Prevalence of GDM adjusted by BMI
  5. Model 3: Multiple meta-regresion analysis effect of PCOS on Prevalence of GDM adjusted by BMI and age
  6. Model 4: Multiple meta-regresion analysis effect of PCOS on Prevalence of GDM adjusted by BMI, age and metformin therapy
  7. Model 5: Multiple meta-regresion analysis effect of PCOS on Prevalence of GDM adjusted by BMI, age and study design
  8. Model 6: Multiple meta-regresion analysis effect of PCOS on Prevalence of GDM adjusted by BMI, age and PCOS definition
  9. Model 7: Multiple meta-regresion analysis effect of PCOS on Prevalence of GDM adjusted by BMI, age and quality assessment
  10. Model 8: Multiple meta-regresion analysis effect of PCOS on Prevalence of GDM adjusted by BMI, age and GDM definition