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Table 2 Results of heterogeneity and publication bias estimation and subgroup meta-analysis for various study population and metformin treatment among women with PCOS and without PCOS

From: Metformin therapy before conception versus throughout the pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systemic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression

  Sample size of participants Chi square (df) P value Begg’s test Pooled overall prevalence (95% CI)
Gestational diabetes in first trimester of pregnancy
 PCOS 337 4.25 (5) 0.510 0.452 0.16 (0.12, 0.19)
  Without metformin therapy 257 − (1) 0.317 0.15 (0.10, 0.19)
  Metformin therapy just before conception 44 − (1) 1 0.27 (0.14, 0.40)
  Metformin therapy before conception till end of pregnancy 36 − (1) 0.317 0.13 (0.02, 0.25)
 Non-PCOS 0
Gestational diabetes in second trimester of pregnancy
 PCOS 5156 1123 (58) 0.001 0.789 0.19 (0.16, 0.22)
  Without metformin therapy 3008 772 (28) 0.001 0.341 0.20 (0.15, 0.25)
  Metformin therapy just before conception 1232 165 (15) 0.001 0.786 0.23 (0.16, 0.30)
  Metformin therapy before conception till end of pregnancy 916 61 (13) 0.001 0.555 0.11 (0.07, 0.16)
 Non-PCOS 12,059 433 (22) 0.001 0.321 0.07 (0.06, 0.09)
Gestational diabetes in third trimester of pregnancy
 PCOS 575 11 (5) 0.001 0.573 0.16 (0.08, 0.23)
  Without metformin therapy 495 − (1) 1 0.12 (0.09, 0.15)
  Metformin therapy just before conception 44 − (1) 1 0.09 (0.01, 0.18)
  Metformin therapy before conception till end of pregnancy 36 − (1) 1 0.22 (0.09, 0.36)
 Non-PCOS 8151 − (1) 0.317 0.04 (0.03, 0.04)
  1. PCOS polycystic ovary syndrome