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Table 4 The risk of prevalent diabetes and insulin resistance according to quartiles of increased body adiposity parameters

From: Assessment of adiposity distribution and its association with diabetes and insulin resistance: a population-based study

  Quartile 1 Quartile 2 Quartile 3 Quartile 4
Diabetes
 BMI 1 1.58 (1.30–1.92) 1.96 (1.63–2.36) 2.92 (2.43–3.50)
 WC 1 1.33 (1.09–1.63) 1.85 (1.53–2.24) 2.89 (2.39–3.50)
 WHR 1 1.58 (1.30–1.93) 2.16 (1.77–2.63) 3.10 (2.55–3.77)
 WHtR 1 1.39 (1.14–1.71) 1.80 (1.50–2.16) 3.05 (2.55–3.64)
 VAI 1 1.50 (1.23–1.82) 2.13 (1.76–2.58) 3.34 (2.78–4.01)
 BAI 1 1.25 (1.05–1.50) 1.37 (1.14–1.66) 1.88 (1.56–2.27)
 LAP 1 1.58 (1.28–1.94) 2.27 (1.86–2.77) 4.06 (3.34–4.94)
Insulin resistance
 BMI 1 2.84 (2.31–3.49) 4.88 (4.01–5.95) 12.19 (10.04–14.79)
 WC 1 2.72 (2.20–3.38) 5.11 (4.17–6.28) 12.96 (10.55–15.93)
 WHR 1 2.11 (1.77–2.52) 3.68 (3.08–4.38) 5.58 (4.68–6.67)
 WHtR 1 2.44 (1.99–3.00) 4.24 (3.52–5.11) 9.97 (8.29–11.99)
 VAI 1 2.30 (1.89–2.80) 4.37 (3.62–5.26) 8.98 (7.48–10.79)
 BAI 1 1.92 (1.62–2.27) 2.84 (2.39–3.38) 4.74 (3.98–5.66)
 LAP 1 3.09 (2.45–3.90) 6.62 (5.30–8.27) 18.27 (14.66–22.77)
  1. Data are odds ratios (95% confidence interval). Participants without diabetes or insulin resistance are defined as 0 and with diabetes or insulin resistance as 1
  2. All models are adjusted for age, sex, current smoking and drinking status, physical activity level, SBP, LDL-C, γ-GGT, eGFR and antidiabetic treatment
  3. BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference, WHR waist-hip ratio, WHtR waist-height ratio, VAI visceral adiposity index, BAI body adiposity index, LAP lipid accumulation product index