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Table 1 Characteristics of study population

From: Assessment of adiposity distribution and its association with diabetes and insulin resistance: a population-based study

  Non-diabetes Diabetes P value
n (%) 7442 (78.4) 2054 (21.6) < 0.0001
Age (years) 55.1 ± 7.7 58.8 ± 8.6 < 0.0001
Male [n (%)] 2062 (27.7) 630 (30.7) 0.008
Physical activity (MET-h/week) 22.4 (10.5–45.0) 21.0 (10.5–42.0) 0.497
Current smoking [n (%)] 731 (10.0) 204 (10.2) 0.817
Current drinking [n (%)] 238 (3.3) 75 (3.7) 0.311
SBP (mmHg) 124.4 ± 16.1 132.2 ± 16.8 < 0.0001
DBP (mmHg) 74.9 ± 9.8 76.9 ± 9.9 < 0.0001
TG (mmol/L) 1.21 (0.89–1.73) 1.57 (1.08–2.26) < 0.0001
TC (mmol/L) 5.17 ± 1.22 5.28 ± 1.36 0.0006
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.34 ± 0.36 1.23 ± 0.35 < 0.0001
LDL-C (mmol/L) 3.13 ± 0.94 3.18 ± 1.03 0.040
FPG (mmol/L) 5.29 (4.93–5.67) 6.46 (5.71–7.69) < 0.0001
OGTT 2 h glucose (mmol/L) 6.90 (5.87–8.10) 11.67 (9.39–13.55) < 0.0001
HbA1c (%) 5.80 (5.60–6.10) 6.60 (6.30–7.20) < 0.0001
Fasting insulin (μIU/mL) 6.80 (5.10–9.40) 8.70 (6.00–12.40) < 0.0001
HOMA-IR 1.60 (1.16–2.25) 2.61 (1.75–3.85) < 0.0001
γ-GGT (U/L) 19.0 (14.0–27.0) 24.0 (17.0–36.0) < 0.0001
eGFR (mL/min per 1.73 m2) 102.3 ± 22.6 99.5 ± 27.1 < 0.0001
BMI 23.4 ± 3.3 24.7 ± 3.5 < 0.0001
WC (cm) 80.7 ± 9.2 85.2 ± 9.9 < 0.0001
WHR 0.86 (0.82–0.90) 0.89 (0.85–0.94) < 0.0001
WHtR 0.51 (0.47–0.54) 0.54 (0.50–0.58) < 0.0001
VAI 1.55 (1.03–2.44) 2.20 (1.40–3.50) < 0.0001
BAI 28.9 (26.3–31.7) 29.7 (26.8–32.9) < 0.0001
LAP 24.4 (14.4–41.2) 38.9 (22.5–61.9) < 0.0001
  1. Data were mean ± SD or medians (interquartile ranges) for skewed variables or numbers (proportions) for categorical variables
  2. P values were for the ANOVA or χ2 analyses across the groups
  3. MET-h/wk separate metabolic equivalent hours per week, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, TG triglycerides, TC total cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, FPG fasting plasma glucose, OGTT oral glucose tolerance test, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, γ-GGT γ-glutamyltransferase, BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference, WHR waist-hip ratio, WHtR waist-height ratio, VAI visceral adiposity index, BAI body adiposity index, LAP lipid accumulation product index
  4. * P < 0.05 compared with non-diabetes group