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Table 3 Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of prediabetes according to sex-specific quartiles of energy-adjusted NEAP and PRAL score

From: The dietary acid load is higher in subjects with prediabetes who are at greater risk of diabetes: a case–control study

Dietary acid load score Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 P for trend
No. of cases/control Jul-38 Dec-37 25/38 103/37  
NEAP, median (mEq/day) 23.3 29.1 34.8 42.7  
Range (8.0–26.72) (26.66–32.49) (32.28–38.31) (38.41–89.0)  
OR (95% CI)
 Model 1 1.00 (Ref) 1.76 (0.62–4.97) 3.53 (1.36–9.15) 15.22 (6.24–37.0) < 0.001
 Model 2 1 1.71 (0.57–5.06) 2.27 (1.007–7.66) 14.48 (5.64–37.19) < 0.001
 No. of cases/control 22/78 36/40 31/18 58/14  
PRAL, median (mEq/day) − 32.8 − 21.6 − 11.8 − 2.6  
Range (− 132.7, − 26.54) (− 26.52, − 15.07) (− 14.8, − 6.87) (− 6.86, 32.9)  
OR (95% CI)
 Model 1 1.00 (Ref) 3.65 (1.86–7.15) 9.24 (4.0–21.0) 29.83 (12.12–73.42) < 0.001
 Model 2 1 3.88 (1.89–7.98) 9.14 (3.75–22.29) 25.61 (9.63–68.08) < 0.001
  1. NEAP and PRAL were categorized into quartiles according to the distribution of the control group
  2. NEAP for overall subjects (Q1: < 30.05, Q2: 30.05–37.68, Q3: 37.69–47.24 and Q4: ≥ 47.25); PRAL for overall subjects (Q1 < − 19.15, Q2: − 19.15 to − 8.19, Q3: − 8.18 to 2.56 and Q4: ≥ 2.57)
  3. To test for a trend across quartiles, the median for each quartile category was used as a continuous variable
  4. Model 1: adjusted for age and sex
  5. Model 2: Model 1 further adjusted for BMI (kg/m2), education (years), physical activity (MET/h/week), and energy intake (Kcal/day)
  6. NEAP net endogenous acid production, PRAL potential renal acid load