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Table 2 Characteristics of 150 control group across the sex-specific quartiles of energy-adjusted NEAP and PRAL score in a case–control study

From: The dietary acid load is higher in subjects with prediabetes who are at greater risk of diabetes: a case–control study

Range NEAP
Q1 (8.0–26.58) Q2 (26.66–32.46) Q3 (32.49–38.3) Q4 (38.4–89.0) P-trend
NEAP, median (mEq/day) 23.3 29.1 34.8 42.7  
No. of subjects 37 38 38 37  
Sex, n (%)
 Male 12 (8.4) 13 (8.8) 14 (8.4) 12 (8.4) 0.9
 Female 25 (16.7) 25 (16.7) 24 (16.0) 25 (16.7)  
Age (years) 47.5 ± 7.2 48.1 ± 8.3 46.9 ± 6.8 48.3 ± 6.6 0.8
Education (years) 7.7 ± 4.0 6.5 ± 3.9 7.3 ± 3.5 6.3 ± 3.9 0.2
Dietary supplement use, n (%)
 Yes 5 (3.3) 3 (2.0) 9 (6.0) 3 (2.0) 0.1
 No 32 (21.3) 35 (23.5) 29 (19.3) 34 (22.7)  
Weight (kg) 67.4 ± 9.7 73.8 ± 9.3 76.0 ± 12.8 72.5 ± 12.0 0.03
Height (cm) 160.4 ± 7.9 163.5 ± 8.4 165.3 ± 8.2 163.7 ± 8.8 0.057
WC (cm) 85.9 ± 9.2 91.3 ± 10.1 88.9 ± 10.0 88.3 ± 9.7 0.4
BMI (kg/m2) 26.2 ± 4.0 27.6 ± 2.9 27.7 ± 4.1 26.9 ± 3.1 0.4
PA (MET/h/week) 1397.5 ± 1193.2 1462.4 ± 1311.1 1606.1 ± 1255.7 1788.5 ± 1105.9 0.1
Energy intake (Kcal/day) 2257.1 ± 595.4 2373.7 ± 543.0 2302.0 ± 625.3 2177.4 ± 752.9 0.5
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 119.1 ± 10.5 119.8 ± 10.1 117.6 ± 12.0 116.7 ± 10.9 0.2
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 72.5 ± 7.4 73.8 ± 8.1 74.6 ± 8.0 72.5 ± 7.6 0.8
FBG (mg/dl) 82.8 ± 6.5 82.1 ± 6.9 82.1 ± 7.7 81.5 ± 7.5 0.4
2-h glucose (mg/dl) 121.3 ± 9.0 120.9 ± 9.6 121.0 ± 9.7 118.2 ± 9.7 0.1
PRAL (mEq/day) − 37.4 ± 19.3 − 21.0 ± 5.1 − 11.4 ± 4.4 0.32.5 ± 9.8 < 0.001
Range PRAL
Q1 (− 132.7, − 26.54) Q2 (− 26.52, − 15.07) Q3 (− 14.8, − 6.87) Q4 (− 6.86, 32.9) P-trend
PRAL, median (mEq/day) − 32.8 − 21.6 − 11.8 − 2.6  
No. of subjects 38 38 37 37  
Sex, n (%)
 Male 11 (7.3) 14 (9.3) 11 (7.3) 15 (10.0) 0.6
 Female 27 (18.0) 24 (16.0) 26 (17.3) 22 (14.7)  
Age (years) 47.8 ± 7.3 47.3 ± 7.8 47.3 ± 7.1 48.4 ± 6.8 0.7
Education (years) 7.1 ± 3.6 7.2 ± 4.1 7.1 ± 4.1 6.3 ± 3.6 0.3
Dietary supplement use, n (%)
 Yes 4 (2.7) 5 (3.3) 7 (4.7) 4 (2.7) 0.6
 No 34 (22.7) 33 (22.0) 30 (20.0) 33 (22.0)  
Weight (kg) 67.6 ± 9.1 74.3 ± 11.9 73.7 ± 11.4 74.2 ± 11.9 0.01
Height (cm) 160.1 ± 7.7 164.9 ± 9.0 163.6 ± 8.2 164.5 ± 8.4 0.053
WC (cm) 86.7 ± 9.2 89.7 ± 10.8 88.1 ± 9.1 90.1 ± 10.2 0.2
BMI (kg/m2) 26.4 ± 3.8 27.2 ± 3.7 27.5 ± 3.8 27.3 ± 3.1 0.2
PA (MET/h/week) 1600.7 ± 1244.9 1380.6 ± 1218.4 1473.0 ± 1228.4 1803.2 ± 1181.2 0.4
Energy intake (Kcal/day) 2413.1 ± 633.0 2280.8 ± 584.4 2062.1 ± 580.4 2353.9 ± 688.1 0.3
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 118.8 ± 10.5 119.6 ± 10.6 118.5 ± 11.6 116.4 ± 10.9 0.3
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 72.7 ± 7.5 73.6 ± 8.2 73.3 ± 7.6 73.7 ± 7.9 0.6
FBG (mg/dl) 83.0 ± 6.6 80.8 ± 6.7 83.1 ± 7.1 81.5 ± 8.0 0.6
2-h glucose (mg/dl) 122.8 ± 8.1 118.5 ± 9.5 123.3 ± 8.7 116.9 ± 10.3 0.057
NEAP (mEq/day) 22.8 ± 4.0 29.8 ± 2.6 35.1 ± 3.3 45.9 ± 12.5 < 0.001
  1. ANOVA and x2 tests were used for continuous and categorical variables, respectively
  2. Energy-adjusted using the residual method
  3. NEAP net endogenous acid production, PRAL potential renal acid load, WC waist circumference, BMI body mass index, PA physical activity, MET metabolic equivalent, FBG fasting blood glucose, NEAP net endogenous acid production
  4. Values are mean ± SD
  5. Number of subjects having the characteristic with %